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  1. SUMMARY

    The 2011–2012 eruption at Cordón Caulle in Chile produced crystal-poor rhyolitic magma with crystal-rich mafic enclaves whose interstitial glass is of identical composition to the host rhyolite. Eruptible rhyolites are thought to be genetically associated with crystal-rich magma mushes, and the enclaves within the Cordón Caulle rhyolite support the existence of a magma mush from which the erupted magma was derived. Moreover, towards the end of the 2011–2012 eruption, subsidence gave way to inflation that has on average been continuous through at least 2020. We hypothesize that magma segregation from a crystal mush could be the source of the observed inflation. Conceptually, magma withdrawal from a crystal-poor rhyolite reservoir caused its depressurization, which could have led to upward flow of interstitial melt within an underlying crystal mush, causing a new batch of magma to segregate and partially recharge the crystal-poor rhyolite body. Because the compressibility of the crystalline matrix of the mush is expected to be lower than that of the interstitial melt, which likely contains some fraction of volatile bubbles, this redistribution of melt would result in a net increase in volume of the system and in the observed inflation. We use numerical modelling of subsurface magma flow and storage to show under which conditions such a scenario is supported by geodetic and petrologic observations.

     
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  2. Abstract Two distinct types of rare crystal-rich mafic enclaves have been identified in the rhyolite lava flow from the 2011–12 Cordón Caulle eruption (Southern Andean Volcanic Zone, SVZ). The majority of mafic enclaves are coarsely crystalline with interlocking olivine-clinopyroxene-plagioclase textures and irregular shaped vesicles filling the crystal framework. These enclaves are interpreted as pieces of crystal-rich magma mush underlying a crystal-poor rhyolitic magma body that has fed recent silicic eruptions at Cordón Caulle. A second type of porphyritic enclaves, with restricted mineral chemistry and spherical vesicles, represents small-volume injections into the rhyolite magma. Both types of enclaves are basaltic end-members (up to 9.3 wt% MgO and 50–53 wt% SiO 2 ) in comparison to enclaves erupted globally. The Cordón Caulle enclaves also have one of the largest compositional gaps on record between the basaltic enclaves and the rhyolite host at 17 wt% SiO 2 . Interstitial melt in the coarsely-crystalline enclaves is compositionally identical to their rhyolitic host, suggesting that the crystal-poor rhyolite magma was derived directly from the underlying basaltic magma mush through efficient melt extraction. We suggest the 2011–12 rhyolitic eruption was generated from a primitive basaltic crystal-rich mush that short-circuited the typical full range of magmatic differentiation in a single step. 
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  3. Volcano inflation, for durations of months to years immediately following an eruption, has been observed at a number of volcanoes, including the 2011/12 eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Such reinflation is often explained by replenishment of the magma reservoir from a deeper source. Whether and why that is the case remains uncertain in most instances, but the implications for renewed eruptive potential may be profound. Here, we posit redistribution of melt within a zoned magma reservoir consisting of a crystal rich mush overlain by an eruptible layer of crystal poor rhyolite as an alternate mechanism for reinflation. Such a zoned magma body is consistent with conceptual models for how crystal poor rhyolites form and with the presence of mafic enclaves within the Cordón Caulle rhyolite. The enclaves can be interpreted as pieces of mush entrained into the overlying rhyolite during its withdrawal from the reservoir. We test the hypothesis that melt from the inter-crystalline pores of the mush can redistribute by porous flow into the overlying crystal poor rhyolite, causing inflation after an eruption. We simulate the flow of melt within the zoned reservoir during and after eruption with a numerical model. As crystal poor rhyolite is erupted, magma pressure within the rhyolite layer above the mush decreases. Consequently, interstitial melt flows upward within the mush, toward the reduced pressure at the interface of mush and crystal poor rhyolite. The mush is treated as a poroelastic material, with interstitial melt flow governed by Darcy's law. Thus, the change in pressure caused by withdrawal from the overlying rhyolite diffuses downward into the mush as the interstitial melt flows upward. The change in pore pressure results in an elastic deformation of the mush matrix. Because pore pressure diffusivity is small, melt redistribution can persist for years after eruptive activity ends, leading to slow inflation compared to fast eruptive deflation. We predict a partial recovery of volume lost from the eruption. Reinflation occurs because the expansion of decompressing melt flowing from the mush into the crystal poor rhyolite exceeds compression of the poroelastic mush. For cases where the interstitial melt is moderately compressible due to exsolved volatiles, our model reproduces the deformation observed at Cordón Caulle. 
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  4. Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (PCC) is an active volcanic complex located in the SVZ of the Andes that has had three major historic rhyodacitic eruptions with the most recent event in 2011-12. We provide petrologic and geochemical evidence that PCC is underlain by a crystal mush using recently identified basaltic mafic enclaves that highlights the involvement of distinct mafic magma components during the 2011-12 eruption. We suggest the mafic enclaves represent remnants of the crystal-rich mush that get entrained during eruption of the crystal-poor rhyodacite melt lens cap. This architecture requires the basaltic mush to produce rhyodacite through efficient fractionation. The dominant population of enclaves are equigranular, crystal-rich (45-55%), vesiculated (10-20%), and display interlocking grains between phases. Vesicles have complex shapes filling the irregular interlocking textures, while phenocrysts show stepwise normal zoning (uniform plagioclase cores, ~An90, overgrown with weakly zoned rims, ~An60). A second porphyritic population may represent mafic recharge into the system that bypasses the mush unperturbed. The porphyritic enclaves have spherical vesicles and tightly bound primitive mineral compositions (Fo80-86 vs Fo70-86 in the equigranular enclaves). Published geothermobarometry from the 2011-12 rhyodacite suggests shallow magma storage (5-7 km, 100-140 MPa, 895°C), which we compare against newly determined mineral-mineral trace-element partitioning based thermometry. Our thermometry indicates the equigranular enclaves were stored at ~900-1000°C at the time of eruption suggesting both a compositionally and thermally zoned magma system. We combine this temperature information with trace element data and mass balance calculations from various minerals phases and melt to substantiate our previous hypothesis that the basaltic enclaves can produce rhyodacite given their crystallinity. These estimates may support a spatially connected basaltic crystal-mush underlying a rhyodacite melt lens cap further proving highly efficient rhyolite formation at PCC. PCC’s enclaves present one of the largest compositional gaps on record globally. We compare them to other enclave-bearing systems and how PCC is an important end-member to understand enclaves as well as rhyolite formation. 
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