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  1. Brain large-scale dynamics is constrained by the heterogeneity of intrinsic anatomical substrate. Little is known how the spatiotemporal dynamics adapt for the heterogeneous structural connectivity (SC). Modern neuroimaging modalities make it possible to study the intrinsic brain activity at the scale of seconds to minutes. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and functional MRI reveals the large-scale SC across different brain regions. Electrophysiological methods (i.e. MEG/EEG) provide direct measures of neural activity and exhibits complex neurobiological temporal dynamics which could not be solved by fMRI. However, most of existing multimodal analytical methods collapse the brain measurements either in space or time domain and fail to capture the spatio-temporal circuit dynamics. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal graph Transformer model to integrate the structural and functional connectivity in both spatial and temporal domain. The proposed method learns the heterogeneous node and graph representation via contrastive learning and multi-head attention based graph Transformer using multimodal brain data (i.e. fMRI, MRI, MEG and behavior performance). The proposed contrastive graph Transformer representation model incorporates the heterogeneity map constrained by T1-to-T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) to improve the model fit to structurefunction interactions. The experimental results with multimodal resting state brain measurements demonstrate the proposed method could highlight the local properties of large-scale brain spatio-temporal dynamics and capture the dependence strength between functional connectivity and behaviors. In summary, the proposed method enables the complex brain dynamics explanation for different modal variants. 
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  2. Understanding the intrinsic patterns of human brain is important to make inferences about the mind and brain-behavior association. Electrophysiological methods (i.e. MEG/EEG) provide direct measures of neural activity without the effect of vascular confounds. The blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional MRI (fMRI) reveals the spatial and temporal brain activity across different brain regions. However, it is unclear how to associate the high temporal resolution Electrophysiological measures with high spatial resolution fMRI signals. Here, we present a novel interpretable model for coupling the structure and function activity of brain based on heterogeneous contrastive graph representation. The proposed method is able to link manifest variables of the brain (i.e. MEG, MRI, fMRI and behavior performance) and quantify the intrinsic coupling strength of different modal signals. The proposed method learns the heterogeneous node and graph representations by contrasting the structural and temporal views through the mind to multimodal brain data. The first experiment with 1200 subjects from Human connectome Project (HCP) shows that the proposed method outperforms the existing approaches in predicting individual gender and enabling the location of the importance of brain regions with sex difference. The second experiment associates the structure and temporal views between the low-level sensory regions and high-level cognitive ones. The experimental results demonstrate that the dependence of structural and temporal views varied spatially through different modal variants. The proposed method enables the heterogeneous biomarkers explanation for different brain measurements. 
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  3. The transformation and transmission of brain stimuli reflect the dynamical brain activity in space and time. Compared with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magneto- or electroencephalography (M/EEG) fast couples to the neural activity through generated magnetic fields. However, the MEG signal is inhomogeneous throughout the whole brain, which is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio, the sensors’ location and distance. Current non-invasive neuroimaging modalities such as fMRI and M/EEG excel high resolution in space or time but not in both. To solve the main limitations of current technique for brain activity recording, we propose a novel recurrent memory optimization approach to predict the internal behavioral states in space and time. The proposed method uses Optimal Polynomial Projections to capture the long temporal history with robust online compression. The training process takes the pairs of fMRI and MEG data as inputs and predicts the recurrent brain states through the Siamese network. In the testing process, the framework only uses fMRI data to generate the corresponding neural response in space and time. The experimental results with Human connectome project (HCP) show that the predicted signal could reflect the neural activity with high spatial resolution as fMRI and high temporal resolution as MEG signal. The experimental results demonstrate for the first time that the proposed method is able to predict the brain response in both milliseconds and millimeters using only fMRI signal. 
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  4. Brain networks have attracted increasing attention due to the potential to better characterize brain dynamics and abnormalities in neurological and psychiatric conditions. Recent years have witnessed enormous successes in deep learning. Many AI algorithms, especially graph learning methods, have been proposed to analyze brain networks. An important issue for existing graph learning methods is that those models are not typically easy to interpret. In this study, we proposed an interpretable graph learning model for brain network regression analysis. We applied this new framework on the subjects from Human Connectome Project (HCP) for predicting multiple Adult Self-Report (ASR) scores. We also use one of the ASR scores as the example to demonstrate how to identify sex differences in the regression process using our model. In comparison with other state-of-the-art methods, our results clearly demonstrate the superiority of our new model in effectiveness, fairness, and transparency. 
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