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  1. Many domains of science have developed complex simulations to describe phenomena of interest. While these simulations provide high-fidelity models, they are poorly suited for inference and lead to challenging inverse problems. We review the rapidly developing field of simulation-based inference and identify the forces giving additional momentum to the field. Finally, we describe how the frontier is expanding so that a broad audience can appreciate the profound influence these developments may have on science.

  2. Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena. However, the probability density that they implicitly define is often intractable, leading to challenging inverse problems for inference. Recently, a number of techniques have been introduced in which a surrogate for the intractable density is learned, including normalizing flows and density ratio estimators. We show that additional information that characterizes the latent process can often be extracted from simulators and used to augment the training data for these surrogate models. We introduce several loss functions that leverage these augmented data and demonstrate that these techniques can improve sample efficiency and qualitymore »of inference.

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