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  1. While the stable marriage problem and its variants model a vast range of matching markets, they fail to capture complex agent relationships, such as the affiliation of applicants and employers in an interview marketplace. To model this problem, the existing literature on matching with externalities permits agents to provide complete and total rankings over matchings based off of both their own and their affiliates' matches. This complete ordering restriction is unrealistic, and further the model may have an empty core. To address this, we introduce the Dichotomous Affiliate Stable Matching (DASM) Problem, where agents' preferences indicate dichotomous acceptance or rejection of another agent in the marketplace, both for themselves and their affiliates. We also assume the agent's preferences over entire matchings are determined by a general weighted valuation function of their (and their affiliates') matches. Our results are threefold: (1) we use a human study to show that real-world matching rankings follow our assumed valuation function; (2) we prove that there always exists a stable solution by providing an efficient, easily-implementable algorithm that finds such a solution; and (3) we experimentally validate the efficiency of our algorithm versus a linear-programming-based approach.
  2. Kidney exchanges allow patients with end-stage renal disease to find a lifesaving living donor by way of an organized market. However, not all patients are equally easy to match, nor are all donor organs of equal quality---some patients are matched within weeks, while others may wait for years with no match offers at all. We propose the first decision-support tool for kidney exchange that takes as input the biological features of a patient-donor pair, and returns (i) the probability of being matched prior to expiry, and (conditioned on a match outcome), (ii) the waiting time for and (iii) the organ quality of the matched transplant. This information may be used to inform medical and insurance decisions. We predict all quantities (i, ii, iii) exclusively from match records that are readily available in any kidney exchange using a quantile random forest approach. To evaluate our approach, we developed two state-of-the-art realistic simulators based on data from the United Network for Organ Sharing that sample from the training and test distribution for these learning tasks---in our application these distributions are distinct. We analyze distributional shift through a theoretical lens, and show that the two distributions converge as the kidney exchange nears steady-state.more »We then show that our approach produces clinically-promising estimates using simulated data. Finally, we show how our approach, in conjunction with tools from the model explainability literature, can be used to calibrate and detect bias in matching policies.

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  3. Bipartite-matching markets pair agents on one side of a market with agents, items, or contracts on the opposing side. Prior work addresses online bipartite-matching markets, where agents arrive over time and are dynamically matched to a known set of disposable resources. In this article, we propose a new model, Online Matching with (offline) Reusable Resources under Known Adversarial Distributions ( OM-RR-KAD ) , in which resources on the offline side are reusable instead of disposable; that is, once matched, resources become available again at some point in the future. We show that our model is tractable by presenting an LP-based non-adaptive algorithm that achieves an online competitive ratio of ½-ϵ for any given constant ϵ > 0. We also show that no adaptive algorithm can achieve a ratio of ½ + o (1) based on the same benchmark LP. Through a data-driven analysis on a massive openly available dataset, we show our model is robust enough to capture the application of taxi dispatching services and ride-sharing systems. We also present heuristics that perform well in practice.
  4. Rideshare and ride-pooling platforms use artificial intelligence-based matching algorithms to pair riders and drivers. However, these platforms can induce unfairness either through an unequal income distribution or disparate treatment of riders. We investigate two methods to reduce forms of inequality in ride-pooling platforms: by incorporating fairness constraints into the objective function and redistributing income to drivers who deserve more. To test these out, we use New York City taxi data to evaluate their performance on both the rider and driver side. For the first method, we find that optimizing for driver fairness out-performs state-of-the-art models in terms of the number of riders serviced, showing that optimizing for fairness can assist profitability in certain circumstances. For the second method, we explore income redistribution as a method to combat income inequality by having drivers keep an $r$ fraction of their income, and contribute the rest to a redistribution pool. For certain values of $r$, most drivers earn near their Shapley value, while still incentivizing drivers to maximize income, thereby avoiding the free-rider problem and reducing income variability. While the first method is useful because it improves both rider and driver-side fairness, the second method is useful because it improves fairness without affectingmore »profitability, and both methods can be combined to improve rider and driver-side fairness.

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  5. Metric clustering is fundamental in areas ranging from Combinatorial Optimization and Data Mining, to Machine Learning and Operations Research. However, in a variety of situations we may have additional requirements or knowledge, distinct from the underlying metric, regarding which pairs of points should be clustered together. To capture and analyze such scenarios, we introduce a novel family of stochastic pairwise constraints, which we incorporate into several essential clustering objectives (radius/median/means). Moreover, we demonstrate that these constraints can succinctly model an intriguing collection of applications, including among others Individual Fairness in clustering and Must-link constraints in semi-supervised learning. Our main result consists of a general framework that yields approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for important clustering objectives, while at the same time producing solutions that respect the stochastic pairwise constraints. Furthermore, for certain objectives we devise improved results in the case of Must-link constraints, which are also the best possible from a theoretical perspective. Finally, we present experimental evidence that validates the effectiveness of our algorithms.
  6. AI systems are often used to make or contribute to important decisions in a growing range of applications, including criminal justice, hiring, and medicine. Since these decisions impact human lives, it is important that the AI systems act in ways which align with human values. Techniques for preference modeling and social choice help researchers learn and aggregate peoples' preferences, which are used to guide AI behavior; thus, it is imperative that these learned preferences are accurate. These techniques often assume that people are willing to express strict preferences over alternatives; which is not true in practice. People are often indecisive, and especially so when their decision has moral implications. The philosophy and psychology literature shows that indecision is a measurable and nuanced behavior---and that there are several different reasons people are indecisive. This complicates the task of both learning and aggregating preferences, since most of the relevant literature makes restrictive assumptions on the meaning of indecision. We begin to close this gap by formalizing several mathematical indecision models based on theories from philosophy, psychology, and economics; these models can be used to describe (indecisive) agent decisions, both when they are allowed to express indecision and when they are not. Wemore »test these models using data collected from an online survey where participants choose how to (hypothetically) allocate organs to patients waiting for a transplant.« less
  7. We provide a polynomial-time, scalable algorithm for equilibrium computation in multi-agent influence games on networks, extending work of Bindel, Kleinberg, and Oren (2015) from the single-agent to the multi-agent setting. In games of influence, agents have limited advertising budget to influence the initial predisposition of nodes in some network towards their products, but the eventual decisions of the nodes are determined by the stationary state of DeGroot opinion dynamics on the network, which takes over after the seeding (Ahmadinejad et al. 2014, 2015). In multi-agent systems, how should agents spend their budgets to seed the network to maximize their utility in anticipation of other advertising agents and the network dynamics? We show that Nash equilibria of this game are pure and (under weak assumptions) unique, and can be computed in polynomial time; we test our model by computing equilibria using mirror descent for the two-agent case on random graphs.
  8. Algorithms for exchange of kidneys is one of the key successful applications in market design, artificial intelligence, and operations research. Potent immunosuppressant drugs suppress the body's ability to reject a transplanted organ up to the point that a transplant across blood- or tissue-type incompatibility becomes possible. In contrast to the standard kidney exchange problem, we consider a setting that also involves the decision about which recipients receive from the limited supply of immunosuppressants that make them compatible with originally incompatible kidneys. We firstly present a general computational framework to model this problem. Our main contribution is a range of efficient algorithms that provide flexibility in terms of meeting meaningful objectives. Motivated by the current reality of kidney exchanges using sophisticated mathematical-programming-based clearing algorithms, we then present a general but scalable approach to optimal clearing with immunosuppression; we validate our approach on realistic data from a large fielded exchange.
  9. Facial recognition systems are increasingly deployed by private corporations, government agencies, and contractors for consumer services and mass surveillance programs alike. These systems are typically built by scraping social media profiles for user images. Adversarial perturbations have been proposed for bypassing facial recognition systems. However, existing methods fail on full-scale systems and commercial APIs. We develop our own adversarial filter that accounts for the entire image processing pipeline and is demonstrably effective against industrial-grade pipelines that include face detection and large scale databases. Additionally, we release an easy-to-use webtool that significantly degrades the accuracy of Amazon Rekognition and the Microsoft Azure Face Recognition API, reducing the accuracy of each to below 1%.