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  1. Abstract

    To function, biomolecules require sufficient specificity of interaction as well as stability to live in the cell while still being able to move. Thermodynamic stability of only a limited number of specific structures is important so as to prevent promiscuous interactions. The individual interactions in proteins, therefore, have evolved collectively to give funneled minimally frustrated landscapes but some strategic parts of biomolecular sequences located at specific sites in the structure have been selected to be frustrated in order to allow both motion and interaction with partners. We describe a framework efficiently to quantify and localize biomolecular frustration at atomic resolution by examining the statistics of the energy changes that occur when the local environment of a site is changed. The location of patches of highly frustrated interactions correlates with key biological locations needed for physiological function. At atomic resolution, it becomes possible to extend frustration analysis to protein-ligand complexes. At this resolution one sees that drug specificity is correlated with there being a minimally frustrated binding pocket leading to a funneled binding landscape. Atomistic frustration analysis provides a route for screening for more specific compounds for drug discovery.

  2. null (Ed.)
  3. The reduction of high-dimensional systems to effective models on a smaller set of variables is an essential task in many areas of science. For stochastic dynamics governed by diffusion processes, a general procedure to find effective equations is the conditioning approach. In this paper, we are interested in the spectrum of the generator of the resulting effective dynamics, and how it compares to the spectrum of the full generator. We prove a new relative error bound in terms of the eigenfunction approximation error for reversible systems. We also present numerical examples indicating that, if Kramers–Moyal (KM) type approximations are used to compute the spectrum of the reduced generator, it seems largely insensitive to the time window used for the KM estimators. We analyze the implications of these observations for systems driven by underdamped Langevin dynamics, and show how meaningful effective dynamics can be defined in this setting.