skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1903466

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    The architectures of deep artificial neural networks (DANNs) are routinely studied to improve their predictive performance. However, the relationship between the architecture of a DANN and its robustness to noise and adversarial attacks is less explored, especially in computer vision applications. Here we investigate the relationship between the robustness of DANNs in a vision task and their underlying graph architectures or structures. First we explored the design space of architectures of DANNs using graph-theoretic robustness measures and transformed the graphs to DANN architectures using various image classification tasks. Then we explored the relationship between the robustness of trained DANNs against noise and adversarial attacks and their underlying architectures. We show that robustness performance of DANNs can be quantified before training using graph structural properties such as topological entropy and Olivier-Ricci curvature, with the greatest reliability for complex tasks and large DANNs. Our results can also be applied for tasks other than computer vision such as natural language processing and recommender systems.

    more » « less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024
  3. Deep learning models have achieved state-of-the-art accuracy in complex tasks, sometimes outperforming human-level accuracy. Yet, they suffer from vulnerabilities known as adversarial attacks, which are imperceptible input perturbations that fool the models on inputs that were originally classified correctly. The adversarial problem remains poorly understood and commonly thought to be an inherent weakness of deep learning models. We argue that understanding and alleviating the adversarial phenomenon may require us to go beyond the Euclidean view and consider the relationship between the input and output spaces as a statistical manifold with the Fisher Information as its Riemannian metric. Under this information geometric view, the optimal attack is constructed as the direction corresponding to the highest eigenvalue of the Fisher Information Matrix - called the Fisher spectral attack. We show that an orthogonal transformation of the data cleverly alters its manifold by keeping the highest eigenvalue but changing the optimal direction of attack; thus deceiving the attacker into adopting the wrong direction. We demonstrate the defensive capabilities of the proposed orthogonal scheme - against the Fisher spectral attack and the popular fast gradient sign method - on standard networks, e.g., LeNet and MobileNetV2 for benchmark data sets, MNIST and CIFAR-10. 
    more » « less
  4. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have started to find their role in the modern healthcare system. DNNs are being developed for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning, and outcome prediction for various diseases. With the increasing number of applications of DNNs in modern healthcare, their trustworthiness and reliability are becoming increasingly important. An essential aspect of trustworthiness is detecting the performance degradation and failure of deployed DNNs in medical settings. The softmax output values produced by DNNs are not a calibrated measure of model confidence. Softmax probability numbers are generally higher than the actual model confidence. The model confidence-accuracy gap further increases for wrong predictions and noisy inputs. We employ recently proposed Bayesian deep neural networks (BDNNs) to learn uncertainty in the model parameters. These models simultaneously output the predictions and a measure of confidence in the predictions. By testing these models under various noisy conditions, we show that the (learned) predictive confidence is well calibrated. We use these reliable confidence values for monitoring performance degradation and failure detection in DNNs. We propose two different failure detection methods. In the first method, we define a fixed threshold value based on the behavior of the predictive confidence with changing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the test dataset. The second method learns the threshold value with a neural network. The proposed failure detection mechanisms seamlessly abstain from making decisions when the confidence of the BDNN is below the defined threshold and hold the decision for manual review. Resultantly, the accuracy of the models improves on the unseen test samples. We tested our proposed approach on three medical imaging datasets: PathMNIST, DermaMNIST, and OrganAMNIST, under different levels and types of noise. An increase in the noise of the test images increases the number of abstained samples. BDNNs are inherently robust and show more than 10% accuracy improvement with the proposed failure detection methods. The increased number of abstained samples or an abrupt increase in the predictive variance indicates model performance degradation or possible failure. Our work has the potential to improve the trustworthiness of DNNs and enhance user confidence in the model predictions. 
    more » « less
  5. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have surpassed human-level accuracy in various learning tasks. However, unlike humans who have a natural cognitive intuition for probabilities, DNNs cannot express their uncertainty in the output decisions. This limits the deployment of DNNs in mission critical domains, such as warfighter decision-making or medical diagnosis. Bayesian inference provides a principled approach to reason about model’s uncertainty by estimating the posterior distribution of the unknown parameters. The challenge in DNNs remains the multi-layer stages of non-linearities, which make the propagation of high-dimensional distributions mathematically intractable. This paper establishes the theoretical and algorithmic foundations of uncertainty or belief propagation by developing new deep learning models named PremiUm-CNNs (Propagating Uncertainty in Convolutional Neural Networks). We introduce a tensor normal distribution as a prior over convolutional kernels and estimate the variational posterior by maximizing the evidence lower bound (ELBO). We start by deriving the first-order mean-covariance propagation framework. Later, we develop a framework based on the unscented transformation (correct at least up to the second-order) that propagates sigma points of the variational distribution through layers of a CNN. The propagated covariance of the predictive distribution captures uncertainty in the output decision. Comprehensive experiments conducted on diverse benchmark datasets demonstrate: 1) superior robustness against noise and adversarial attacks, 2) self-assessment through predictive uncertainty that increases quickly with increasing levels of noise or attacks, and 3) an ability to detect a targeted attack from ambient noise. 
    more » « less
  6. null (Ed.)
    This paper presents a novel framework for training convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to quantify the impact of gradual and abrupt uncertainties in the form of adversarial attacks. Uncertainty quantification is achieved by combining the CNN with a Gaussian process (GP) classifier algorithm. The variance of the GP quantifies the impact on the uncertainties and especially their effect on the object classification tasks. Learning from uncertainty provides the proposed CNN-GP framework with flexibility, reliability and robustness to adversarial attacks. The proposed approach includes training the network under noisy conditions. This is accomplished by comparing predictions with classification labels via the Kullback-Leibler divergence, Wasserstein distance and maximum correntropy. The network performance is tested on the classical MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, CIFAR10 and CIFAR 100 datasets. Further tests on robustness to both black-box and white-box attacks are also carried out for MNIST. The results show that the testing accuracy improves for networks that backpropogate uncertainty as compared to methods that do not quantify the impact of uncertainties. A comparison with a state-of-art Monte Carlo dropout method is also presented and the outperformance of the CNN-GP framework with respect to reliability and computational efficiency is demonstrated. 
    more » « less
  7. null (Ed.)