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  1. Abstract

    Moiré coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) superlattices introduces flat minibands that enable strong electronic correlation and fascinating correlated states, and it also modifies the strong Coulomb-interaction-driven excitons and gives rise to moiré excitons. Here, we introduce the layer degree of freedom to the WSe2/WS2moiré superlattice by changing WSe2from monolayer to bilayer and trilayer. We observe systematic changes of optical spectra of the moiré excitons, which directly confirm the highly interfacial nature of moiré coupling at the WSe2/WS2interface. In addition, the energy resonances of moiré excitons are strongly modified, with their separation significantly increased in multilayer WSe2/monolayer WS2moiré superlattice. The additional WSe2layers also modulate the strong electronic correlation strength, evidenced by the reduced Mott transition temperature with added WSe2layer(s). The layer dependence of both moiré excitons and correlated electronic states can be well described by our theoretical model. Our study presents a new method to tune the strong electronic correlation and moiré exciton bands in the TMDCs moiré superlattices, ushering in an exciting platform to engineer quantum phenomena stemming from strong correlation and Coulomb interaction.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Named after the two‐faced Roman god of transitions, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) Janus monolayers have two different chalcogen surfaces, inherently breaking the out‐of‐plane mirror symmetry. The broken mirror symmetry and the resulting potential gradient lead to the emergence of quantum properties such as the Rashba effect and the formation of dipolar excitons. Experimental access to these quantum properties, however, hinges on the ability to produce high‐quality 2D Janus monolayers. Here, these results introduce a holistic 2D Janus synthesis technique that allows real‐time monitoring of the growth process. This prototype chamber integrates in situ spectroscopy, offering fundamental insights into the structural evolution and growth kinetics, that allow the evaluation and optimization of the quality of Janus monolayers. The versatility of this method is demonstrated by synthesizing and monitoring the conversion of SWSe, SNbSe, and SMoSe Janus monolayers. Deterministic conversion and real‐time data collection further aid in conversion of exfoliated TMDs to Janus monolayers and unparalleled exciton linewidth values are reached, compared to the current best standard. The results offer an insight into the process kinetics and aid in the development of new Janus monolayers with high optical quality, which is much needed to access their exotic properties.

     
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  3. Abstract

    A distinct class of 2D layered quantum materials with the chemical formula ofRTe3(R= lanthanide) has gained significant attention owing to the occurrence of collective quantum states, superconductivity, charge density waves (CDW), spin density waves, and other advanced quantum properties. To study the Fermi surface nesting driven CDW formation, the layeredRTe3family stages an excellent low dimensional genre system. In addition to the primary energy gap feature observed at higher energy, optical spectroscopy study on someRTe3evidence a second CDW energy gap structure indicating the occurrence of multiple CDW ordering even with light and intermediateRTe3compounds. Here, a comprehensive review of the fundamentals ofRTe3layered tritelluride materials is presented with a special focus on the recent advances made in electronic structure, CDW transition, superconductivity, magnetic properties of these unique quantum materials. A detailed description of successful synthesis routes including the flux method, self‐flux method, and CVT along with potential applications is summarized.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Strong many-body interaction in two-dimensional transitional metal dichalcogenides provides a unique platform to study the interplay between different quasiparticles, such as prominent phonon replica emission and modified valley-selection rules. A large out-of-plane magnetic field is expected to modify the exciton-phonon interactions by quantizing excitons into discrete Landau levels, which is largely unexplored. Here, we observe the Landau levels originating from phonon-exciton complexes and directly probe exciton-phonon interaction under a quantizing magnetic field. Phonon-exciton interaction lifts the inter-Landau-level transition selection rules for dark trions, manifested by a distinctively different Landau fan pattern compared to bright trions. This allows us to experimentally extract the effective mass of both holes and electrons. The onset of Landau quantization coincides with a significant increase of the valley-Zeeman shift, suggesting strong many-body effects on the phonon-exciton interaction. Our work demonstrates monolayer WSe2as an intriguing playground to study phonon-exciton interactions and their interplay with charge, spin, and valley.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Newly discovered 2D Janus transition metal dichalcogenides layers have gained much attention from a theory perspective owing to their unique atomic structure and exotic materials properties, but little to no experimental data are available on these materials. Here, experimental and theoretical studies establish the vibrational and optical behavior of 2D Janus S–W–Se and S–Mo–Se monolayers under high pressures for the first time. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)‐grown classical transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) monolayers are first transferred onto van der Waals (vdW) mica substrates and converted to 2D Janus sheets by surface plasma technique, and then integrated into a 500 µm size diamond anvil cell for high‐pressure studies. The results show that 2D Janus layers do not undergo phase transition up to 15 GPa, and in this pressure regime, their vibrational modes exhibit a nonmonotonic response to the applied pressures (/dP). Interestingly, these 2D Janus monolayers exhibit unique blueshift in photoluminescence (PL) upon compression, which is in contrast to many other traditional semiconductor materials. Overall theoretical simulations offer in‐depth insights and reveal that the overall optical response is a result of competition between theab‐plane (blueshift) andc‐axis (redshift) compression. The overall findings shed the very first light on how 2D Janus monolayers respond under extreme pressures and expand the fundamental understanding of these materials.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Alloying selected layered transitional metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) with unique chain‐like structures offers the opportunities for structural, optical, and electrical engineering thus expands the regime of this class of pseudo‐one‐dimensional materials. Here, the novel phase transition in anisotropic Nb(1−x)TixS3alloys is demonstrated for the first time. Results show that Nb(1−x)TixS3can be fully alloyed across the entire composition range from triclinic‐phase NbS3to monoclinic‐phase TiS3. Surprisingly, incorporation of a small concentration of Ti (x ≈0.05–0.18) into NbS3host matrix is sufficient to induce triclinic to monoclinic transition. Theoretical studies suggest that Ti atoms effectively introduce hole doping, thus rapidly decreases the total energy of monoclinic phase and induces the phase transition. When alloyed, crystalline and optical anisotropy are largely preserved as evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and angle‐resolved Raman spectroscopy. Further Raman measurements identify Raman modes to determine crystalline anisotropy direction and offer insights into the degree of anisotropy. Overall results introduce Nb(1−x)TixS3as a new and easy phase change material and mark the first phase engineering in anisotropic van der Waals (vdW) trichalcogenide systems for their potential applications in two‐dimensional superconductivity, electronics, photonics, and information technologies.

     
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  7. Abstract Engineering the properties of quantum materials via strong light-matter coupling is a compelling research direction with a multiplicity of modern applications. Those range from modifying charge transport in organic molecules, steering particle correlation and interactions, and even controlling chemical reactions. Here, we study the modification of the material properties via strong coupling and demonstrate an effective inversion of the excitonic band-ordering in a monolayer of WSe 2 with spin-forbidden, optically dark ground state. In our experiments, we harness the strong light-matter coupling between cavity photon and the high energy, spin-allowed bright exciton, and thus creating two bright polaritonic modes in the optical bandgap with the lower polariton mode pushed below the WSe 2 dark state. We demonstrate that in this regime the commonly observed luminescence quenching stemming from the fast relaxation to the dark ground state is prevented, which results in the brightening of this intrinsically dark material. We probe this effective brightening by temperature-dependent photoluminescence, and we find an excellent agreement with a theoretical model accounting for the inversion of the band ordering and phonon-assisted polariton relaxation. 
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  8. The rare-earth tritellurides (RTe 3 ) are a distinct class of 2D layered materials that recently gained significant attention due to hosting such quantum collective phenomena as superconductivity or charge density waves (CDWs). Many members of this van der Waals (vdW) family crystals exhibit CDW behavior at room temperature, i.e. , RTe 3 compound where R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb. Here, our systematic studies establish the CDW properties of RTe 3 when the vdW spacing/interaction strength between adjacent RTe 3 layers is engineered under extreme hydrostatic pressures. Using a non-destructive spectroscopy technique, pressure-dependent Raman studies first establish the pressure coefficients of phonon and CDW amplitude modes for a variety of RTe 3 materials, including LaTe 3 , CeTe 3 , PrTe 3 , NdTe 3 , SmTe 3 , GdTe 3 , and TbTe 3 . Results further show that the CDW phase is eventually suppressed at high pressures when the interlayer spacing is reduced and interaction strength is increased. Comparison between different RTe 3 materials shows that LaTe 3 with the largest thermodynamic equilibrium interlayer spacing (smallest chemical pressure) exhibits the most stable CDW phases at high pressures. In contrast, CDW phases in late RTe 3 systems with the largest internal chemical pressures are suppressed easily with applied pressure. Overall results provide comprehensive insights into the CDW response of the entire RTe 3 series under extreme pressures, offering an understanding of CDW formation/engineering in a unique class of vdW RTe 3 material systems. 
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