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  1. The local explanation provides heatmaps on images to explain how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) derive their output. Due to its visual straightforwardness, the method has been one of the most popular explainable AI (XAI) methods for diagnosing CNNs. Through our formative study (S1), however, we captured ML engineers' ambivalent perspective about the local explanation as a valuable and indispensable envision in building CNNs versus the process that exhausts them due to the heuristic nature of detecting vulnerability. Moreover, steering the CNNs based on the vulnerability learned from the diagnosis seemed highly challenging. To mitigate the gap, we designed DeepFuse, the first interactive design that realizes the direct feedback loop between a user and CNNs in diagnosing and revising CNN's vulnerability using local explanations. DeepFuse helps CNN engineers to systemically search unreasonable local explanations and annotate the new boundaries for those identified as unreasonable in a labor-efficient manner. Next, it steers the model based on the given annotation such that the model doesn't introduce similar mistakes. We conducted a two-day study (S2) with 12 experienced CNN engineers. Using DeepFuse, participants made a more accurate and reasonable model than the current state-of-the-art. Also, participants found the way DeepFuse guides case-based reasoning can practically improve their current practice. We provide implications for design that explain how future HCI-driven design can move our practice forward to make XAI-driven insights more actionable.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  2. Spatial prediction is to predict the values of the targeted variable, such as PM2.5 values and temperature, at arbitrary locations based on the collected geospatial data. It greatly affects the key research topics in geoscience in terms of obtaining heterogeneous spatial information (e.g., soil conditions, precipitation rates, wheat yields) for geographic modeling and decision-making at local, regional, and global scales. In-situ data, collected by ground-level in-situ sensors, and remote sensing data, collected by satellite or aircraft, are two important data sources for this task. In-situ data are relatively accurate while sparse and unevenly distributed. Remote sensing data cover large spatial areas but are coarse with low spatiotemporal resolution and prone to interference. How to synergize the complementary strength of these two data types is still a grand challenge. Moreover, it is difficult to model the unknown spatial predictive mapping while handling the trade-off between spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Third, representing spatial relations without substantial information loss is also a critical issue. To address these challenges, we propose a novel Heterogeneous Self-supervised Spatial Prediction (HSSP) framework that synergizes multi-source data by minimizing the inconsistency between in-situ and remote sensing observations. We propose a new deep geometric spatial interpolation model as the prediction backbone that automatically interpolates the values of the targeted variable at unknown locations based on existing observations by taking into account both distance and orientation information. Our proposed interpolator is proven to both be the general form of popular interpolation methods and preserve spatial information. The spatial prediction is enhanced by a novel error-compensation framework to capture the prediction inconsistency due to spatial heterogeneity. Extensive experiments have been conducted on real-world datasets and demonstrated our model’s superiority in performance over state-of-the-art models. 
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  3. null (Ed.)