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  1. Abstract

    A simple equation modelling an inextensible elastic lining of an inner-lined tube subject to an imposed pressure difference is derived from a consideration of the idealised elastic properties of the lining and the pressure and soft-substrate forces. Two cases are considered in detail, one with prominent wrinkling and a second one in which wrinkling is absent and only buckling remains. Bifurcation diagrams are computed via numerical continuation for both cases. Wrinkling, buckling, folding, and mixed-mode solutions are found and organised according to system-response measures including tension, in-plane compression, maximum curvature and energy. Approximate wrinkle solutions are constructed using weakly nonlinear theory, in excellent agreement with numerics. Our approach explains how the wavelength of the wrinkles is selected as a function of the parameters in compressed wrinkling systems and shows how localised folds and mixed-mode states form in secondary bifurcations from wrinkled states. Our model aims to capture the wrinkling response of arterial endothelium to blood pressure changes but applies much more broadly.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We consider simple mean field continuum models for first order liquid–liquid demixing and solid–liquid phase transitions and show how the Maxwell construction at phase coexistence emerges on going from finite-size closed systems to the thermodynamic limit. The theories considered are the Cahn–Hilliard model of phase separation, which is also a model for the liquid-gas transition, and the phase field crystal model of the solid–liquid transition. Our results show that states comprising the Maxwell line depend strongly on the mean density with spatially localized structures playing a key role in the approach to the thermodynamic limit.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. We study the existence and stability of propagating fronts in Meinhardt’s multivariable reaction-diffusion model of branching in one spatial dimension. We identify a saddle-node-infinite-period bifurcation of fronts that leads to episodic front propagation in the parameter region below propagation failure and show that this state is stable. Stable constant speed fronts exist only above this parameter value. We use numerical continuation to show that propagation failure is a consequence of the presence of a T-point corresponding to the formation of a heteroclinic cycle in a spatial dynamics description. Additional T-points are identified that are responsible for a large multiplicity of different unstable traveling front-peak states. The results indicate that multivariable models may support new types of behavior that are absent from typical two-variable models but may nevertheless be important in developmental processes such as branching and somitogenesis. 
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  6. We study the linear stability properties of spatially localized single- and multi-peak states generated in a subcritical Turing bifurcation in the Meinhardt model of branching. In one spatial dimension, these states are organized in a foliated snaking structure owing to peak–peak repulsion but are shown to be all linearly unstable, with the number of unstable modes increasing with the number of peaks present. Despite this, in two spatial dimensions, direct numerical simulations reveal the presence of stable single- and multi-spot states whose properties depend on the repulsion from nearby spots as well as the shape of the domain and the boundary conditions imposed thereon. Front propagation is shown to trigger the growth of new spots while destabilizing others. The results indicate that multi-variable models may support new types of behavior that are absent from typical two-variable models. 
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