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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 17, 2024
  4. This paper presents a summary and meta-analysis of the first three iterations of the annual International Verification of Neural Networks Competition (VNN-COMP), held in 2020, 2021, and 2022. In the VNN-COMP, participants submit software tools that analyze whether given neural networks satisfy specifications describing their input-output behavior. These neural networks and specifications cover a variety of problem classes and tasks, corresponding to safety and robustness properties in image classification, neural control, reinforcement learning, and autonomous systems. We summarize the key processes, rules, and results, present trends observed over the last three years, and provide an outlook into possible future developments. 
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  5. Neural network approximations have become attractive to compress data for automation and autonomy algorithms for use on storage-limited and processing-limited aerospace hardware. However, unless these neural network approximations can be exhaustively verified to be safe, they cannot be certified for use on aircraft. An example of such systems is the unmanned Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Xu, which is a very popular benchmark for open-loop neural network control system verification tools. This paper proposes a new closed-loop extension of this benchmark, which consists of a set of 10 closed-loop properties selected to evaluate the safety of an ownship aircraft in the presence of a co-altitude intruder aircraft. These closed-loop safety properties are used to evaluate five of the 45 neural networks that comprise the ACAS Xu benchmark (corresponding to co-altitude cases) as well as the switching logic between the five neural networks. The combination of nonlinear dynamics and switching between five neural networks is a challenging verification task accomplished with star-set reachability methods in two verification tools. The safety of the ownship aircraft under initial position uncertainty is guaranteed in every scenario proposed. 
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  6. Bogomolov, S. ; Parker, D. (Ed.)
    Safety is a critical concern for the next generation of autonomy that is likely to rely heavily on deep neural networks for perception and control. This paper proposes a method to repair unsafe ReLU DNNs in safety-critical systems using reachability analysis. Our repair method uses reachability analysis to calculate the unsafe reachable domain of a DNN, and then uses a novel loss function to construct its distance to the safe domain during the retraining process. Since subtle changes of the DNN parameters can cause unexpected performance degradation, we also present a minimal repair approach where the DNN deviation is minimized. Furthermore, we explore applications of our method to repair DNN agents in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) with seamless integration with learning algorithms. Our method is evaluated on the ACAS Xu benchmark and a rocket lander system against the state-of-the-art method ART. Experimental results show that our repair approach can generate provably safe DNNs on multiple safety specifications with negligible performance degradation, even in the absence of training data (Code is available online at 
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  7. Bogomolov, S. ; Parker, D. (Ed.)
    Continuous deep learning models, referred to as Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (Neural ODEs), have received considerable attention over the last several years. Despite their burgeoning impact, there is a lack of formal analysis techniques for these systems. In this paper, we consider a general class of neural ODEs with varying architectures and layers, and introduce a novel reachability framework that allows for the formal analysis of their behavior. The methods developed for the reachability analysis of neural ODEs are implemented in a new tool called NNVODE. Specifically, our work extends an existing neural network verification tool to support neural ODEs. We demonstrate the capabilities and efficacy of our methods through the analysis of a set of benchmarks that include neural ODEs used for classification, and in control and dynamical systems, including an evaluation of the efficacy and capabilities of our approach with respect to existing software tools within the continuous-time systems reachability literature, when it is possible to do so. 
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