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    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are searching for gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). Here we show how future PTAs could use a detection of gravitational waves from individually resolved SMBHB sources to produce a purely gravitational wave-based measurement of the Hubble constant. This is achieved by measuring two separate distances to the same source from the gravitational wave signal in the timing residual: the luminosity distance DL through frequency evolution effects, and the parallax distance Dpar through wavefront curvature (Fresnel) effects. We present a generalized timing residual model including these effects in an expanding universe. Of these two distances, Dpar is challenging to measure due to the pulsar distance wrapping problem, a degeneracy in the Earth-pulsar distance and gravitational wave source parameters that requires highly precise, sub-parsec level, pulsar distance measurements to overcome. However, in this paper we demonstrate that combining the knowledge of two SMBHB sources in the timing residual largely removes the wrapping cycle degeneracy. Two sources simultaneously calibrate the PTA by identifying the distances to the pulsars, which is useful in its own right, and allow recovery of the source luminosity and parallax distances which results in a measurement of the Hubble constant. We find that, with optimistic PTAs in the era of the Square Kilometre Array, two fortuitous SMBHB sources within a few hundred Mpc could be used to measure the Hubble constant with a relative uncertainty on the order of 10 per cent.

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    Since gravitational and electromagnetic waves from a compact binary coalescence carry independent information about the source, the joint observation is important for understanding the physical mechanisms of the emissions. Rapid detection and source localization of a gravitational wave signal are crucial for the joint observation to be successful. For a signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio, it is even possible to detect it before the merger, which is called early warning. In this article, we estimate the performances of the early warning for neutron-star black hole binaries, considering the precession effect of a binary orbit, with the near-future detectors such as A+, AdV+, KAGRA+ , and Voyager. We find that a gravitational wave source can be localized in $100 \, \rm {deg^2}$ on the sky before ∼10–$40 \, \rm {s}$ of time to merger once per year.

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  3. Abstract

    We presentnimbus: a hierarchical Bayesian framework to infer the intrinsic luminosity parameters of kilonovae (KNe) associated with gravitational-wave (GW) events, based purely on nondetections. This framework makes use of GW 3D distance information and electromagnetic upper limits from multiple surveys for multiple events and self-consistently accounts for the finite sky coverage and probability of astrophysical origin. The framework is agnostic to the brightness evolution assumed and can account for multiple electromagnetic passbands simultaneously. Our analyses highlight the importance of accounting for model selection effects, especially in the context of nondetections. We show our methodology using a simple, two-parameter linear brightness model, taking the follow-up of GW190425 with the Zwicky Transient Facility as a single-event test case for two different prior choices of model parameters: (i) uniform/uninformative priors and (ii) astrophysical priors based on surrogate models of Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations of KNe. We present results under the assumption that the KN is within the searched region to demonstrate functionality and the importance of prior choice. Our results show consistency withsimsurvey—an astronomical survey simulation tool used previously in the literature to constrain the population of KNe. While our results based on uniform priors strongly constrain the parameter space, those based on astrophysical priors are largely uninformative, highlighting the need for deeper constraints. Future studies with multiple events having electromagnetic follow-up from multiple surveys should make it possible to constrain the KN population further.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. Data associated with Figures, Tables, and population parameter samples associated with 
    The population of merging compact binaries inferred using gravitational waves through GWTC-3 ,
    LIGO DCC, arXiv, PRX. 
    This is v2, superseding v1. Please see the for more information.

    LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO are funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. Virgo is funded, through the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), by the French Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and the Dutch Nikhef, with contributions by institutions from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Spain. The construction and operation of KAGRA are funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), National Research Foundation (NRF) and Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan. 
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  6. Abstract

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have cataloged eleven confidently detected gravitational-wave events during the first two observing runs of the advanced detector era. All eleven events were consistent with being from well-modeled mergers between compact stellar-mass objects: black holes or neutron stars. The data around the time of each of these events have been made publicly available through the gravitational-wave open science center. The entirety of the gravitational-wave strain data from the first and second observing runs have also now been made publicly available. There is considerable interest among the broad scientific community in understanding the data and methods used in the analyses. In this paper, we provide an overview of the detector noise properties and the data analysis techniques used to detect gravitational-wave signals and infer the source properties. We describe some of the checks that are performed to validate the analyses and results from the observations of gravitational-wave events. We also address concerns that have been raised about various properties of LIGO–Virgo detector noise and the correctness of our analyses as applied to the resulting data.

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