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  1. Future advancements in three-dimensional (3D) electronics require robust thermal management methodology. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are reliable and solid-state heat pumping devices with high cooling capacity that can meet the requirements of emerging 3D microelectronic devices. Here, we first provide the design of TECs for electronics cooling using a computational model and then experimentally validate the main predictions. Key device parameters such as device thickness, leg density, and contact resistance were studied to understand their influence on the performance of TECs. Our results show that it is possible to achieve high cooling power density through optimization of TE leg height and packing density. Scaling of TECs is shown to provide ultra-high cooling power density.
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