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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 27, 2025
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  4. Cloud object storage such as AWS S3 is cost-effective and highly elastic but relatively slow, while high-performance cloud storage such as AWS ElastiCache is expensive and provides limited elasticity. We present a new cloud storage service called ServerlessMemory, which stores data using the memory of serverless functions. ServerlessMemory employs a sliding-window-based memory management strategy inspired by the garbage collection mechanisms used in the programming language to effectively segregate hot/cold data and provides fine-grained elasticity, good performance, and a pay-per-access cost model with extremely low cost. We then design and implement InfiniStore, a persistent and elastic cloud storage system, which seamlessly couples the function-based ServerlessMemory layer with a persistent, inexpensive cloud object store layer. InfiniStore enables durability despite function failures using a fast parallel recovery scheme built on the auto-scaling functionality of a FaaS (Function-as-a-Service) platform. We evaluate InfiniStore extensively using both microbenchmarking and two real-world applications. Results show that InfiniStore has more performance benefits for objects larger than 10 MB compared to AWS ElastiCache and Anna, and InfiniStore achieves 26.25% and 97.24% tenant-side cost reduction compared to InfiniCache and ElastiCache, respectively. 
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  5. The demand for memory is ever increasing. Many prior works have explored hardware memory compression to increase effective memory capacity. However, prior works compress and pack/migrate data at a small - memory blocklevel - granularity; this introduces an additional block-level translation after the page-level virtual address translation. In general, the smaller the granularity of address translation, the higher the translation overhead. As such, this additional block-level translation exacerbates the well-known address translation problem for large and/or irregular workloads. A promising solution is to only save memory from cold (i.e., less recently accessed) pages without saving memory from hot (i.e., more recently accessed) pages (e.g., keep the hot pages uncompressed); this avoids block-level translation overhead for hot pages. However, it still faces two challenges. First, after a compressed cold page becomes hot again, migrating the page to a full 4KB DRAM location still adds another level (albeit page-level, instead of block-level) of translation on top of existing virtual address translation. Second, only compressing cold data require compressing them very aggressively to achieve high overall memory savings; decompressing very aggressively compressed data is very slow (e.g., > 800ns assuming the latest Deflate ASIC in industry). This paper presents Translation-optimized Memory Compression for Capacity (TMCC) to tackle the two challenges above. To address the first challenge, we propose compressing page table blocks in hardware to opportunistically embed compression translations into them in a software-transparent manner to effectively prefetch compression translations during a page walk, instead of serially fetching them after the walk. To address the second challenge, we perform a large design space exploration across many hardware configurations and diverse workloads to derive and implement in HDL an ASIC Deflate that is specialized for memory; for memory pages, it is 4X as fast as the state-of-the art ASIC Deflate, with little to no sacrifice in compression ratio. Our evaluations show that for large and/or irregular workloads, TMCC can either improve performance by 14% without sacrificing effective capacity or provide 2.2x the effective capacity without sacrificing performance compared to a stateof-the-art hardware memory compression for capacity. 
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