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  1. Volunteer moderators actively engage in online content management, such as removing toxic content and sanctioning anti-normative behaviors in user-governed communities. The synchronicity and ephemerality of live-streaming communities pose unique moderation challenges. Based on interviews with 21 volunteer moderators on Twitch, we mapped out 13 moderation strategies and presented them in relation to the bad act, enabling us to categorize from proactive and reactive perspectives and identify communicative and technical interventions. We found that the act of moderation involves highly visible and performative activities in the chat and invisible activities involving coordination and sanction. The juxtaposition of real-time individual decision-making with collaborative discussions and the dual nature of visible and invisible activities of moderators provide a unique lens into a role that relies heavily on both the social and technical. We also discuss how the affordances of live-streaming contribute to these unique activities.
  2. Rules and norms are critical to community governance. Live streaming communities like Twitch consist of thousands of micro-communities called channels. We conducted two studies to understand the micro-community rules. Study one suggests that Twitch users perceive that both rules transparency and communication frequency matter to channel vibe and frequency of harassment. Study two finds that the most popular channels have no channel or chat rules; among these having rules, rules encouraged by streamers are prominent. We explain why this may happen and how this contributes to community moderation and future research.
  3. Online harassment has becoming an unavoidable issue and many people are trying to find methods to mitigate online harassment. In this study, we did a systematic review of online harassment interventions. We focused on studies that proposed online mechanisms and designed experiments to test the corresponding effects. We collected 17 studies from scholarly databases which met our criteria. Among these studies, we categorized the interventions into 7 groups based on the theoretical or design-related mechanism they were using to justify the intervention. At the end of the study, we critically reviewed these studies and proposed some ideas for future research.
  4. Despite the widespread use of communicative charts as a medium for scientific communication, we lack a systematic understanding of how well the charts fulfill the goals of effective visual communication. Existing research mostly focuses on the means, i.e. the encoding principles, and not the end, i.e. the key takeaway of a chart. To address this gap, we start from the first principles and aim to answer the fundamental question: how can we describe the message of a scientific chart? We contribute a fact-evidence reasoning framework (FaEvR) by augmenting the conventional visualization pipeline with the stages of gathering and associating evidence for decoding the facts presented in a chart. We apply the resulting classification scheme of fact and evidence on a collection of 500 charts collected from publications in multiple science domains. We demonstrate the practical applications of FaEvR in calibrating task complexity and detecting barriers towards chart interpretability.