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  1. Abstract

    Manipulation of nanoparticles by light induced forces is widely used in nanotechnology and bioengineering. In normal cases, when a nanoparticle is illuminated by light waves, the transfer of momentum from light to the nanoparticle can push it to move along the light propagation direction. On the other hand, the lateral optical force can transport an object perpendicular to the light propagation direction, and the optical pulling force can attract an object toward the light source. Although these optical forces have drawn growing attention, in situ tuning of them is rarely explored. In this paper, tuning of both lateral optical forces and optical pulling forces is numerically demonstrated via a graphene/α‐phase molybdenum trioxide (α‐MoO3) bilayer structure. Under plane‐wave illumination, both the amplitude and direction of the optical forces exerted on a nanoparticle above this bilayer structure can be tuned in the mid‐infrared range. The underlying mechanism can be understood by studying the corresponding isofrequency contours of the hybrid plasmon‐phonon polaritons supported by the graphene/α‐MoO3bilayer. The analytical study using the dipole approximation method reproduces the numerical results, revealing the origin of the optical forces. This work opens a new avenue for engineering optical forces to manipulate various objects optically.

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  2. Abstract

    On the basis of the Jones matrix, independent control over the amplitude and phase of light has been demonstrated by combining several meta‐atoms into the supercell of a metasurface. However, due to the intrinsic limitation of a planar achiral structure, the maximum number of independent, complex elements in one Jones matrix is three, giving rise to up to three‐channel amplitude and phase control. In this work, more Jones matrices corresponding to different angles of incidence are proposed to add, so that the degrees of freedom in the amplitude and phase control can be further increased. The supercell of the designed metasurfaces consists of three dielectric nanoblocks with predefined rotation angles and displacements in the 2D space, which can be inversely determined with the help of the genetic algorithm. Empowered by the ability to realize four‐ or even eight‐channel amplitude and phase control, the generation of multiple structured light, including two independent perfect Poincaré beams, two double‐ring perfect Poincaré beams, two perfect Poincaré beam arrays, and four vector vortex beam arrays, is numerically demonstrated. Such novel designs are expected to benefit the development of modern optical applications, including but not limited to optical communications, quantum information, and signal encryption.

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  3. Abstract

    In contrast to sequence‐specific techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing does not require prior knowledge of the sample for surveying DNA. However, current sequencing technologies demand high inputs for a suitable library preparation, which typically necessitates DNA amplification, even for single‐molecule sequencing methods. Here, electro‐optical zero‐mode waveguides (eZMWs) are presented, which can load DNA into the confinement of zero‐mode waveguides with high efficiency and negligible DNA fragment length bias. Using eZMWs, highly efficient voltage‐induced loading of DNA fragments of various sizes from ultralow inputs (nanogram‐to‐picogram levels) is observed. Rapid DNA fragment identification is demonstrated by burst sequencing of short and long DNA molecules (260 and 20 000 bp) loaded from an equimolar picomolar‐level concentration mixture in just a few minutes. The device allows further studies in which low‐input DNA capture is essential, for example, in epigenetics, where native DNA is required for obtaining modified base information.

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  4. Abstract

    Mimicry is a biological camouflage phenomenon whereby an organism can change its shape and color to resemble another object. Herein, the idea of biological mimicry and rich degrees of freedom in metasurface designs are combined to realize holographic mimicry devices. A general mathematical method, called phase matrix transformation, to accomplish the holographic mimicry process is proposed. Based on this method, a dynamic metasurface hologram is designed, which shows an image of a “bird” in the air, and a distinct image of a “fish” when the environment is changed to oil. Furthermore, to make the mimicry behavior more generic, holographic mimicry operating at dual wavelengths is also designed and experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, the fully independent phase modulation realized by phase matrix transformation makes the working efficiency of the device relatively higher than the conventional multiwavelength holographic devices with off‐axis illumination or interleaved subarrays. The work potentially opens a new research paradigm interfacing bionics with nanophotonics, which may produce novel applications for optical information encryption, virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR), and military camouflage systems.

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  5. Non-Hermitian meta-gratings enable unidirectional excitation and reflection of optical surface waves at the nanoscale. 
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  6. null (Ed.)