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  1. Abstract

    In this paper, we design a tunable phase-modulated metasurface composed of periodically distributed piezoelectric patches with resonant-type shunt circuits. The electroelastic metasurface can control the wavefront of the lowest antisymmetric mode Lamb wave (A0mode) in a small footprint due to its subwavelength features. The fully coupled electromechanical model is established to study the transmission characteristics of the metasurface unit and validated through numerical and experimental studies. Based on the analysis of the metasurface unit, we first explore the performance of electroelastic metasurface with single-resonant shunts and then extend its capability with multi-resonant shunts. By only tuning the electric loads in the shunt circuits, we utilize the proposed metasurface to accomplish wave deflection and wave focusing ofA0mode Lamb waves at different angles and focal points, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the metasurface with single-resonant shunts can deflect the wavefront of 5 kHz and 6 kHz flexural waves by desired angles with less than2%deviation. In addition, it can be tuned to achieve nearly three times displacement amplification at the designed focal point for a wide range of angles from75to 75. Furthermore, with multi-resonant shunts, the piezoelectric-based metasurface can accomplish anomalous wave control over flexural waves at multiple frequencies (i.e. simultaneously at 5 kHz and 10 kHz), developing new potentials toward a broad range of engineering applications such as demultiplexing various frequency components or guiding and focusing them at different positions.

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  2. We propose a nonlinear acoustic metasurface concept by exploiting the nonlinearity of locally resonant unit cells formed by curved beams. The analytical model is established to explore the nonlinear phenomenon, specifically the second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the nonlinear unit cell, and validated through numerical and experimental studies. By tailoring the phase gradient of the unit cells, nonlinear acoustic metasurfaces are developed to demultiplex different frequency components and achieve anomalous wavefront control of SHG in the transmitted region. To this end, we numerically demonstrate wave steering, wave focusing, and self-bending propagation. Our results show that the proposed nonlinear metasurface provides an effective and efficient platform to achieve significant SHG and separate different harmonic components for wavefront control of individual harmonics. Overall, this study offers an outlook to harness nonlinear effects for acoustic wavefront tailoring and develops potential toward advanced technologies to manipulate acoustic waves.

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  3. Han, Jae-Hung ; Shahab, Shima ; Yang, Jinkyu (Ed.)
  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Controlling and manipulating elastic/acoustic waves via artificially structured metamaterials, phononic crystals, and metasurfaces have gained an increasing research interest in the last decades. Unlike others, a metasurface is a single layer in the host medium with an array of subwavelength-scaled patterns introducing an abrupt phase shift in the wave propagation path. In this study, an elastic metasurface composed of an array of slender beam resonators is proposed to control the elastic wavefront of low-frequency flexural waves. The phase gradient based on Snell’s law is achieved by tailoring the thickness of thin beam resonators connecting two elastic host media. Through analytical and numerical models, the phase-modulated metasurfaces are designed and verified to accomplish three dynamic wave functions, namely, deflection, non-paraxial propagation, and focusing. An oblique incident wave is also demonstrated to show the versatility of the proposed design for focusing of wave energy incident from multiple directions. Experimentally measured focusing metasurface has nearly three times wave amplification at the designed focal point which validates the design and theoretical models. Furthermore, the focusing metasurface is exploited for low-frequency energy harvesting and the piezoelectric harvester is improved by almost nine times in terms of the harvested power output as compared to the baseline harvester on the pure plate without metasurface. 
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