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  1. We develop a global variable substitution method that reduces n-variable monomials in combinatorial optimization problems to equivalent instances with monomials in fewer variables. We apply this technique to 3-SAT and analyze the optimal quantum unitary circuit depth needed to solve the reduced problem using the quantum approximate optimization algorithm. For benchmark 3-SAT problems, we find that the upper bound of the unitary circuit depth is smaller when the problem is formulated as a product and uses the substitution method to decompose gates than when the problem is written in the linear formulation, which requires no decomposition.
  2. Abstract We discuss quantum position verification (QPV) protocols in which the verifiers create and send single-qubit states to the prover. QPV protocols using single-qubit states are known to be insecure against adversaries that share a small number of entangled qubits. We introduce QPV protocols that are practically secure: they only require single-qubit states from each of the verifiers, yet their security is broken if the adversaries sharing an impractically large number of entangled qubits employ teleportation-based attacks. These protocols are a modification of known QPV protocols in which we include a classical random oracle without altering the amount of quantum resources needed by the verifiers. We present a cheating strategy that requires a number of entangled qubits shared among the adversaries that grows exponentially with the size of the classical input of the random oracle.
  3. Abstract Time evolution and scattering simulation in phenomenological models are of great interest for testing and validating the potential for near-term quantum computers to simulate quantum field theories. Here, we simulate one-particle propagation and two-particle scattering in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model for 3 and 4 spatial sites with periodic boundary conditions on a quantum computer. We use the quantum Lanczos algorithm to obtain all energy levels and corresponding eigenstates of the system. We simplify the quantum computation by taking advantage of the symmetries of the system. These results enable us to compute one- and two-particle transition amplitudes, particle numbers for spatial sites, and the transverse magnetization as functions of time. The quantum circuits were executed on various IBM Q superconducting hardware. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the values obtained using exact diagonalization.