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Intermittent computing is gaining traction in application domains such as Energy Harvesting Devices (EHDs) that experience arbitrary power failures during program execution. To make progress, programs require system support to checkpoint state and re-execute after power failure by restoring the last saved state. This re-execution should be correct, i.e., simulated by a continuously-powered execution. We study the logical underpinning of intermittent computing and model checkpoint, crash, restore, and re-execution operations as computation on Crash types. We draw inspiration from adjoint logic and define Crash types by introducing two adjoint modality operators to model persistent and transient memory values of partial (re-)executions and the transitions between them caused by checkpoints and restoration. We define a Crash type system for a core calculus. We prove the correctness of intermittent systems by defining a novel logical relation for Crash types.more » « lessFree, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
null (Ed.)Intermittently-powered, energy-harvesting devices operate on energy collected from their environment and must operate intermittently as energy is available. Runtime systems for such devices often rely on checkpoints or redo-logs to save execution state between power cycles, causing arbitrary code regions to re-execute on reboot. Any non-idempotent program behavior—behavior that can change on each execution—can lead to incorrect results. This work investigates non-idempotent behavior caused by repeating I/O operations, not addressed by prior work. If such operations affect a control statement or address of a memory update, they can cause programs to take different paths or write to different memory locations on re-executions, resulting in inconsistent memory states. We provide the first characterization of input-dependent idempotence bugs and develop IBIS-S, a program analysis tool for detecting such bugs at compile time, and IBIS-D, a dynamic information flow tracker to detect bugs at runtime. These tools use taint propagation to determine the reach of input. IBIS-S searches for code patterns leading to inconsistent memory updates, while IBIS-D detects concrete memory inconsistencies. We evaluate IBIS on embedded system drivers and applications. IBIS can detect I/O-dependent idempotence bugs, giving few (IBIS-S) or no (IBIS-D) false positives and providing actionable bug reports. These bugs are common in sensor-driven applications and are not fixed by existing intermittent systems.more » « less