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  1. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have surpassed human-level accuracy in various learning tasks. However, unlike humans who have a natural cognitive intuition for probabilities, DNNs cannot express their uncertainty in the output decisions. This limits the deployment of DNNs in mission critical domains, such as warfighter decision-making or medical diagnosis. Bayesian inference provides a principled approach to reason about model’s uncertainty by estimating the posterior distribution of the unknown parameters. The challenge in DNNs remains the multi-layer stages of non-linearities, which make the propagation of high-dimensional distributions mathematically intractable. This paper establishes the theoretical and algorithmic foundations of uncertainty or belief propagation by developing new deep learning models named PremiUm-CNNs (Propagating Uncertainty in Convolutional Neural Networks). We introduce a tensor normal distribution as a prior over convolutional kernels and estimate the variational posterior by maximizing the evidence lower bound (ELBO). We start by deriving the first-order mean-covariance propagation framework. Later, we develop a framework based on the unscented transformation (correct at least up to the second-order) that propagates sigma points of the variational distribution through layers of a CNN. The propagated covariance of the predictive distribution captures uncertainty in the output decision. Comprehensive experiments conducted on diverse benchmark datasets demonstrate: 1) superior robustness against noise and adversarial attacks, 2) self-assessment through predictive uncertainty that increases quickly with increasing levels of noise or attacks, and 3) an ability to detect a targeted attack from ambient noise. 
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  2. Phase of flight (POF) prediction estimates the future state of aircraft along planned trajectories, allowing the prediction of potential conflicts as well as optimization of air space, controlled by the Federal Aviation Administration. In this paper, we present a study conducted to develop three different POF forecasting machine learning models and a statistical regression model using four-dimensional GPS and RADAR Track data from 57 flights provided by an En Route Computer System. The investigated machine learning models include Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM-RNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (NODE). These were developed to forecast the horizontal and vertical POF of the current aircraft for the next time step. The results in this study indicate that LSTM-RNN models are more suitable for POF prediction than SVM and statistical regression models, with NODE being a promising model for future trajectory prediction research. 
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    Learning in uncertain, noisy, or adversarial environments is a challenging task for deep neural networks (DNNs). We propose a new theoretically grounded and efficient approach for robust learning that builds upon Bayesian estimation and Variational Inference. We formulate the problem of density propagation through layers of a DNN and solve it using an Ensemble Density Propagation (EnDP) scheme. The EnDP approach allows us to propagate moments of the variational probability distribution across the layers of a Bayesian DNN, enabling the estimation of the mean and covariance of the predictive distribution at the output of the model. Our experiments using MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets show a significant improvement in the robustness of the trained models to random noise and adversarial attacks. 
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