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  1. Mentoring is a well-known subject, but we know little about it as a science. We need to learn more about how to evolve mentorship. In this article, we propose some new directions for mentorship in the present and the future.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Current postdoctoral fellows have a range of career options; however, following a career path into acade- mia can be daunting. Here, we dis- cuss essential elements needed to transition the postdoctoral position into faculty candidates. Further- more, we provide critical hacks to help postdoctoral fellows to be well prepared to navigate the appli- cation and interview processes
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023
  3. Working with multiple mentors is a critical way for students to expand their network, gain opportunities, and better prepare for future scholastic or professional ventures. However, students from underrepresented groups (UR) are less likely to be mentored or have access to mentors, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. We developed and implemented a workshop, to provide the necessary foundation for students to be better prepared for establishing future mentorships throughout graduate and professional school.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 22, 2023
  4. One of the biggest obstacles to success is a lack of practical time management skills. Here, we provide suggestions on how to optimize time management.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. To prepare for an academic career requires a postdoctoral position that provides an advanced research experience, which leads to increasing independence. However, it is critical to develop other parts of your academic portfolio to create a robust application. Here, we discuss the critical steps in preparing a competitive faculty application.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  6. Cultural humility allows a better understanding and appreciation of others, as well as fostering positive interactions with different kinds of individuals. Here, we discuss the difficulties faced by persons excluded because of their ethnicity or race (PEERs) in immunology and science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM), as well as the importance of cultural humility in research and academia.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 19, 2023
  7. High-resolution 3D images of organelles are of paramount importance in cellular biology. Although light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have provided the standard for imaging cellular structures, they cannot provide 3D images. However, recent technological advances such as serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) provide the tools to create 3D images for the ultrastructural analysis of organelles. Here, we describe a standardized protocol using the visualization software, Amira, to quantify organelle morphologies in 3D, thereby providing accurate and reproducible measurements of these cellular substructures. We demonstrate applications of SBF-SEM and Amiramore »to quantify mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structures.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  8. Persons Excluded from science because of Ethnicity and Race (PEERs) face chronic exposure to interpersonal stressors, such as social discrimination, throughout their scientific careers, leading to a long-term decline in physical and mental health. Many PEERs exhibit John Henryism, a coping mechanism to prolonged stress where an individual expends higher levels of effort and energy at the cost of their physical and mental health. In this article, we discuss how social dominance may increase John Henryism within the STEM community; the causes, effects and costs of John Henryism; and highlight solutions to combat these social adversity stressors within the academicmore »institution.« less
  9. Autophagosomes and lysosomes work in tandem to conduct autophagy, an intracellular degradation system which is crucial for cellular homeostasis. Altered autophagy contributes to the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cancers and metabolic diseases. Although many studies have investigated autophagy to elucidate disease pathogenesis, specific identification of the various components of the cellular degradation machinery remains difficult. The goal of this paper is to describe an approach to reproducibly identify and distinguish subcellular structures involved in autophagy. We provide methods that avoid common pitfalls, including a detailed explanation for how to distinguish lysosomes and lipid droplets and discuss the differences betweenmore »autophagosomes and inclusion bodies. These methods are based on using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), capable of generating nanometer-scale micrographs of cellular degradation components in a fixed sample. In addition to TEM, we discuss other imaging techniques, such as immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, which can be utilized for the reliable and accurate classification of cellular organelles. Our results show how these methods may be employed to accurately quantify the cellular degradation machinery under various conditions, such as treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum stressor thapsigargin or the ablation of dynamin-related protein 1.« less
  10. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is widely used as an imaging modality to provide high-resolution details of subcellular components within cells and tissues. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are organelles of particular interest to those investigating metabolic disorders. A straightforward method for quantifying and characterizing particular aspects of these organelles would be a useful tool. In this protocol, we outline how to accurately assess the morphology of these important subcellular structures using open source software ImageJ, originally developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Specifically, we detail how to obtain mitochondrial length, width, area, and circularity, in addition to assessingmore »cristae morphology and measuring mito/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. These procedures provide useful tools for quantifying and characterizing key features of sub-cellular morphology, leading to accurate and reproducible measurements and visualizations of mitochondria and ER.« less