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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Following the rapid progress in the post-quantum cryptography (PQC) field that many efforts have been gradually switched to the hardware implementation side, this paper presents a novel systolic accelerator for polynomial multiplication within two lattice-based PQC algorithms, key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) Saber and binary Ring-Learning-with-Errors (BRLWE)-based encryption scheme. Based on the observation that polynomial multiplication over ring is the key arithmetic operation for the two PQC schemes, we have proposed a novel systolic accelerator for the targeted polynomial multiplications (applicable to two PQC schemes). Mathematical formulation is given to illustrate the proposed algorithmic operation for both schemes. Then, the proposed systolic accelerator is presented. Finally, field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation results have been provided to confirm the efficiency of the proposed systolic accelerator under two schemes. The proposed accelerator is highly efficient, and the following work may focus on cryptoprocessor design and side-channel attacks.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2023
  3. Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) has gained significant attention from the community recently as it is proven that the existing public-key cryptosystems are vulnerable to the attacks launched from the well-developed quantum computers. The finite field arithmetic AB+C , where A and C are integer polynomials and B is a binary polynomial, is the key component for the binary Ring-learning-with-errors (BRLWE)-based encryption scheme (a low-complexity PQC suitable for emerging lightweight applications). In this paper, we propose a novel hardware implementation of the finite field arithmetic AB+C through three stages of interdependent efforts: (i) a rigorous mathematical formulation process is presented first; (ii) an efficient hardware architecture is then presented with detailed description; (iii) a thorough implementation has also been given along with the comparison. Overall, (i) the proposed basic structure ( u=1 ) outperforms the existing designs, e.g., it involves 55.9% less area-delay product (ADP) than [13] for n=512 ; (ii) the proposed design also offers very efficient performance in time-complexity and can be used in many future applications.
  4. The recent advance in the post-quantum cryptography (PQC) field has gradually shifted from the theory to the implementation of the cryptosystem, especially on the hardware platforms. Following this trend, in this paper, we aim to present efficient implementations of the finite field arithmetic (key component) for the binary Ring-Learning-with-Errors (Ring-LWE) PQC through a novel lookup-table (LUT)-like method. In total, we have carried out four stages of interdependent efforts: (i) an algorithm-hardware co-design driven derivation of the proposed LUT-like method is provided detailedly for the key arithmetic of the BRLWE scheme; (ii) the proposed hardware architecture is then presented along with the internal structural description; (iii) we have also presented a novel hybrid size structure suitable for flexible operation, which is the first report in the literature; (iv) the final implementation and comparison processes have also been given, demonstrating that our proposed structures deliver significant improved performance over the state-of-the-art solutions. The proposed designs are highly efficient and are expected to be employed in many emerging applications.
  5. The rapid advancement in quantum technology has initiated a new round of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) related exploration. The key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) Saber is an important module lattice-based PQC, which has been selected as one of the PQC finalists in the ongoing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standardization process. On the other hand, however, efficient hardware implementation of KEM Saber has not been well covered in the literature. In this paper, therefore, we propose a novel cyclic-row oriented processing (CROP) strategy for efficient implementation of the key arithmetic operation of KEM Saber, i.e., the polynomial multiplication. The proposed work consists of three layers of interdependent efforts: (i) first of all, we have formulated the main operation of KEM Saber into desired mathematical forms to be further developed into CROP based algorithms, i.e., the basic version and the advanced higher-speed version; (ii) then, we have followed the proposed CROP strategy to innovatively transfer the derived two algorithms into desired polynomial multiplication structures with the help of a series of algorithm-architecture co-implementation techniques; (iii) finally, detailed complexity analysis and implementation results have shown that the proposed polynomial multiplication structures have better area-time complexities than the state-of-the-art solutions. Specifically, the field-programmablemore »gate array (FPGA) implementation results show that the proposed design, e.g., the basic version has at least less 11.2% area-delay product (ADP) than the best competing one (Cyclone V device). The proposed high-performance polynomial multipliers offer not only efficient operation for output results delivery but also possess low-complexity feature brought by CROP strategy. The outcome of this work is expected to provide useful references for further development and standardization process of KEM Saber.« less