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  1. Abstract

    Statistical relational learning (SRL) and graph neural networks (GNNs) are two powerful approaches for learning and inference over graphs. Typically, they are evaluated in terms of simple metrics such as accuracy over individual node labels. Complexaggregate graph queries(AGQ) involving multiple nodes, edges, and labels are common in the graph mining community and are used to estimate important network properties such as social cohesion and influence. While graph mining algorithms support AGQs, they typically do not take into account uncertainty, or when they do, make simplifying assumptions and do not build full probabilistic models. In this paper, we examine the performance of SRL and GNNs on AGQs over graphs with partially observed node labels. We show that, not surprisingly, inferring the unobserved node labels as a first step and then evaluating the queries on the fully observed graph can lead to sub-optimal estimates, and that a better approach is to compute these queries as an expectation under the joint distribution. We propose a sampling framework to tractably compute the expected values of AGQs. Motivated by the analysis of subgroup cohesion in social networks, we propose a suite of AGQs that estimate the community structure in graphs. In our empirical evaluation,more »we show that by estimating these queries as an expectation, SRL-based approaches yield up to a 50-fold reduction in average error when compared to existing GNN-based approaches.

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  2. Templated graphical models (TGMs) encode model structure using rules that capture recurring relationships between multiple random variables. While the rules in TGMs are interpretable, it is not clear how they can be used to generate explanations for the individual predictions of the model. Further, learning these rules from data comes with high computational costs: it typically requires an expensive combinatorial search over the space of rules and repeated optimization over rule weights. In this work, we propose a new structure learning algorithm, Explainable Structured Model Search (ESMS), that learns a templated graphical model and an explanation framework for its predictions. ESMS uses a novel search procedure to efficiently search the space of models and discover models that trade-off predictive accuracy and explainability. We introduce the notion of relational stability and prove that our proposed explanation framework is stable. Further, our proposed piecewise pseudolikelihood (PPLL) objective does not require re-optimizing the rule weights across models during each iteration of the search. In our empirical evaluation on three realworld datasets, we show that our proposed approach not only discovers models that are explainable, but also significantly outperforms existing state-out-the-art structure learning approaches.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
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  9. We present Neural Probabilistic Soft Logic (NeuPSL), a novel neuro-symbolic (NeSy) framework that unites state-of-the-art symbolic reasoning with the low-level perception of deep neural networks. To explicitly model the boundary between neural and symbolic representations, we introduce NeSy Energy-Based Models, a general family of energy-based models that combine neural and symbolic reasoning. Using this framework, we show how to seamlessly integrate neural and symbolic parameter learning and inference. We perform an extensive empirical evaluation and show that NeuPSL outperforms existing methods on joint inference and has significantly lower variance in almost all settings.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023