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  1. Bogomolov, S. ; Parker, D. (Ed.)
    Continuous deep learning models, referred to as Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (Neural ODEs), have received considerable attention over the last several years. Despite their burgeoning impact, there is a lack of formal analysis techniques for these systems. In this paper, we consider a general class of neural ODEs with varying architectures and layers, and introduce a novel reachability framework that allows for the formal analysis of their behavior. The methods developed for the reachability analysis of neural ODEs are implemented in a new tool called NNVODE. Specifically, our work extends an existing neural network verification tool to support neural ODEs. We demonstrate the capabilities and efficacy of our methods through the analysis of a set of benchmarks that include neural ODEs used for classification, and in control and dynamical systems, including an evaluation of the efficacy and capabilities of our approach with respect to existing software tools within the continuous-time systems reachability literature, when it is possible to do so.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2023
  2. Bogomolov, S. ; Parker, D. (Ed.)
    Safety is a critical concern for the next generation of autonomy that is likely to rely heavily on deep neural networks for perception and control. This paper proposes a method to repair unsafe ReLU DNNs in safety-critical systems using reachability analysis. Our repair method uses reachability analysis to calculate the unsafe reachable domain of a DNN, and then uses a novel loss function to construct its distance to the safe domain during the retraining process. Since subtle changes of the DNN parameters can cause unexpected performance degradation, we also present a minimal repair approach where the DNN deviation is minimized. Furthermore, we explore applications of our method to repair DNN agents in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) with seamless integration with learning algorithms. Our method is evaluated on the ACAS Xu benchmark and a rocket lander system against the state-of-the-art method ART. Experimental results show that our repair approach can generate provably safe DNNs on multiple safety specifications with negligible performance degradation, even in the absence of training data (Code is available online at
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 11, 2023
  4. This report presents the results of a friendly competition for formal verification of continuous and hybrid systems with artificial intelligence (AI) components. Specifically, machine learning (ML) components in cyber-physical systems (CPS), such as feedforward neural networks used as feedback controllers in closed-loop systems are considered, which is a class of systems classically known as intelligent control systems, or in more modern and specific terms, neural network control systems (NNCS). We more broadly refer to this category as AI and NNCS (AINNCS). The friendly competition took place as part of the workshop Applied Verification for Continuous and Hybrid Systems (ARCH) in 2021. In the third edition of this AINNCS category at ARCH-COMP, three tools have been applied to solve seven different benchmark problems, (in alphabetical order): JuliaReach, NNV, and Verisig. JuliaReach is a new participant in this category, Verisig participated previously in 2019 and NNV has participated in all previous competitions. This report is a snapshot of the current landscape of tools and the types of benchmarks for which these tools are suited. Due to the diversity of problems, lack of a shared hardware platform, and the early stage of the competition, we are not ranking tools in terms of performance,more »yet the presented results combined with 2020 results probably provide the most complete assessment of current tools for safety verification of NNCS.

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  5. This paper introduces robustness verification for semantic segmentation neural networks (in short, semantic segmentation networks [SSNs]), building on and extending recent approaches for robustness verification of image classification neural networks. Despite recent progress in developing verification methods for specifications such as local adversarial robustness in deep neural networks (DNNs) in terms of scalability, precision, and applicability to different network architectures, layers, and activation functions, robustness verification of semantic segmentation has not yet been considered. We address this limitation by developing and applying new robustness analysis methods for several segmentation neural network architectures, specifically by addressing reachability analysis of up-sampling layers, such as transposed convolution and dilated convolution. We consider several definitions of robustness for segmentation, such as the percentage of pixels in the output that can be proven robust under different adversarial perturbations, and a robust variant of intersection-over-union (IoU), the typical performance evaluation measure for segmentation tasks. Our approach is based on a new relaxed reachability method, allowing users to select the percentage of a number of linear programming problems (LPs) to solve when constructing the reachable set, through a relaxation factor percentage. The approach is implemented within NNV, then applied and evaluated on segmentation datasets, such as amore »multi-digit variant of MNIST known as M2NIST. Thorough experiments show that by using transposed convolution for up-sampling and average-pooling for down-sampling, combined with minimizing the number of ReLU layers in the SSNs, we can obtain SSNs with not only high accuracy (IoU), but also that are more robust to adversarial attacks and amenable to verification. Additionally, using our new relaxed reachability method, we can significantly reduce the verification time for neural networks whose ReLU layers dominate the total analysis time, even in classification tasks.« less
  6. Using the newly introduced ``occupation kernels,'' the present manuscript develops an approach to dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) that treats continuous time dynamics, without discretization, through the Liouville operator. The technical and theoretical differences between Koopman based DMD for discrete time systems and Liouville based DMD for continuous time systems are highlighted, which includes an examination of these operators over several reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.