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  1. Abstract The eighteenth data release (DR18) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the first one for SDSS-V, the fifth generation of the survey. SDSS-V comprises three primary scientific programs or “Mappers”: the Milky Way Mapper (MWM), the Black Hole Mapper (BHM), and the Local Volume Mapper. This data release contains extensive targeting information for the two multiobject spectroscopy programs (MWM and BHM), including input catalogs and selection functions for their numerous scientific objectives. We describe the production of the targeting databases and their calibration and scientifically focused components. DR18 also includes ∼25,000 new SDSS spectra and supplemental information for X-ray sources identified by eROSITA in its eFEDS field. We present updates to some of the SDSS software pipelines and preview changes anticipated for DR19. We also describe three value-added catalogs (VACs) based on SDSS-IV data that have been published since DR17, and one VAC based on the SDSS-V data in the eFEDS field. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)
  3. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)
  4. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  5. Abstract The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has recently initiated its fifth survey generation (SDSS-V), with a central focus on stellar spectroscopy. In particular, SDSS-V's Milky Way Mapper program will deliver multiepoch optical and near-infrared spectra for more than 5 × 10 6 stars across the entire sky, covering a large range in stellar mass, surface temperature, evolutionary stage, and age. About 10% of those spectra will be of hot stars of OBAF spectral types, for whose analysis no established survey pipelines exist. Here we present the spectral analysis algorithm, ZETA-PAYNE, developed specifically to obtain stellar labels from SDSS-V spectra of stars with these spectral types and drawing on machine-learning tools. We provide details of the algorithm training, its test on artificial spectra, and its validation on two control samples of real stars. Analysis with ZETA-PAYNE leads to only modest internal uncertainties in the near-IR with APOGEE (optical with BOSS): 3%–10% (1%–2%) for T eff , 5%–30% (5%–25%) for v sin i , 1.7–6.3 km s −1 (0.7–2.2 km s −1 ) for radial velocity, <0.1 dex (<0.05 dex) for log g , and 0.4–0.5 dex (0.1 dex) for [M/H] of the star, respectively. We find a good agreement between atmospheric parameters of OBAF-type stars when inferred from their high- and low-resolution optical spectra. For most stellar labels, the APOGEE spectra are (far) less informative than the BOSS spectra of these stars, while log g , v sin i , and [M/H] are in most cases too uncertain for meaningful astrophysical interpretation. This makes BOSS low-resolution optical spectra better for stellar labels of OBAF-type stars, unless the latter are subject to high levels of extinction. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Luminous hot stars ( M K s  ≲ 0 mag and T eff  ≳ 8000 K) dominate the stellar energy input to the interstellar medium throughout cosmological time, are used as laboratories to test theories of stellar evolution and multiplicity, and serve as luminous tracers of star formation in the Milky Way and other galaxies. Massive stars occupy well-defined loci in colour–colour and colour–magnitude spaces, enabling selection based on the combination of Gaia EDR3 astrometry and photometry and 2MASS photometry, even in the presence of substantive dust extinction. In this paper we devise an all-sky sample of such luminous OBA-type stars, which was designed to be complete rather than very pure, providing targets for spectroscopic follow-up with the SDSS-V survey. To estimate the purity and completeness of our catalogue, we derive stellar parameters for the stars in common with LAMOST DR6 and we compare the sample to other O and B-type star catalogues. We estimate ‘astro-kinematic’ distances by combining parallaxes and proper motions with a model for the expected velocity and density distribution of young stars; we show that this adds useful constraints on the distances and therefore luminosities of the stars. With these distances we map the spatial distribution of a more stringently selected subsample across the Galactic disc, and find it to be highly structured, with distinct over- and under-densities. The most evident over-densities can be associated with the presumed spiral arms of the Milky Way, in particular the Sagittarius-Carina and Scutum-Centaurus arms. Yet, the spatial picture of the Milky Way’s young disc structure emerging in this study is complex, and suggests that most young stars in our Galaxy ( t age  <  t dyn ) are not neatly organised into distinct spiral arms. The combination of the comprehensive spectroscopy to come from SDSS-V (yielding velocities, ages, etc.) with future Gaia data releases will be crucial in order to reveal the dynamical nature of the spiral arms themselves. 
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  7. Abstract The data throughput of massive spectroscopic surveys in the course of each observation is directly coordinated with the number of optical fibers which reach their target. In this paper, we evaluate the safety and the performance of the astrobots coordination in SDSS-V by conducting various experimental and simulated tests. We illustrate that our strategy provides a complete coordination condition which depends on the operational characteristics of astrobots, their configurations, and their targets. Namely, a coordination method based on the notion of cooperative artificial potential fields is used to generate safe and complete trajectories for astrobots. Optimal target assignment further improves the performance of the used algorithm in terms of faster convergences and less oscillatory movements. Both random targets and galaxy catalog targets are employed to observe the coordination success of the algorithm in various target distributions. The proposed method is capable of handling all potential collisions in the course of coordination. Once the completeness condition is fulfilled according to initial configuration of astrobots and their targets, the algorithm reaches full convergence of astrobots. Should one assign targets to astrobots using efficient strategies, convergence time as well as the number of oscillations decrease in the course of coordination. Rare incomplete scenarios are simply resolved by trivial modifications of astrobots swarms’ parameters. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)
  10. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)