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  1. Initially identified as a key regulator of female fertility in Arabidopsis, the FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase is now recognized as crucial for almost all aspects of plant growth and survival. FER partners with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the LLG family to act as coreceptors on the cell surface. The FER-LLG coreceptor interacts with different RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptide ligands to function in various growth and developmental processes and to respond to challenges from the environment. The RALF-FER-LLG signaling modules interact with molecules in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus and mediate an interwoven signaling network. Multiple FER-LLG modules, each anchored by FER or a FER-related receptor kinase, have been studied, illustrating the functional diversity and the mechanistic complexity of the FER family signaling modules. The challenges going forward are to distill from this complexity the unifying schemes where possible and attain precision and refinement in the knowledge of critical details upon which future investigations can be built. By focusing on the extensively characterized FER, this review provides foundational information to guide the next phase of research on FER in model as well as crop species and potential applications for improving plant growth and resilience.

    Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 75 is May 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 20, 2025
  2. In deciphering the global signaling capacity of FERONIA receptor kinase, Liu, Yeh, et al. discovered an extracellular phase separation process driven by FERONIA peptide ligand RALF-cell wall polysaccharide pectin interaction, which leads to cognate and non-cognate receptor clustering and promiscuous endocytosis as a coping mechanism in response to environmental stressors. Highlights Cell surface pectin-RALF1 phase separation recruits FERONIA-LLG1 into condensates RALF induces FERONIA-LLG1-dependent promiscuous receptor clustering and endocytosis RALF1-pectin molecular condensates function as surface sensors for stress signals FERONIA-LLG1-mediated global endocytosis ensures plant resilience under stress 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Abstract Flowering plants have evolved numerous intraspecific and interspecific prezygotic reproductive barriers to prevent production of unfavourable offspring 1 . Within a species, self-incompatibility (SI) is a widely utilized mechanism that rejects self-pollen 2,3 to avoid inbreeding depression. Interspecific barriers restrain breeding between species and often follow the SI × self-compatible (SC) rule, that is, interspecific pollen is unilaterally incompatible (UI) on SI pistils but unilaterally compatible (UC) on SC pistils 1,4–6 . The molecular mechanisms underlying SI, UI, SC and UC and their interconnections in the Brassicaceae remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the SI pollen determinant S -locus cysteine-rich protein/ S -locus protein 11 (SCR/SP11) 2,3 or a signal from UI pollen binds to the SI female determinant S -locus receptor kinase (SRK) 2,3 , recruits FERONIA (FER) 7–9 and activates FER-mediated reactive oxygen species production in SI stigmas 10,11 to reject incompatible pollen. For compatible responses, diverged pollen coat protein B-class 12–14 from SC and UC pollen differentially trigger nitric oxide, nitrosate FER to suppress reactive oxygen species in SC stigmas to facilitate pollen growth in an intraspecies-preferential manner, maintaining species integrity. Our results show that SRK and FER integrate mechanisms underlying intraspecific and interspecific barriers and offer paths to achieve distant breeding in Brassicaceae crops. 
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