skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 10:00 PM ET on Friday, December 8 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, December 9 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 2112009

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract In this paper, we present a decentralized approach based on a simple set of rules to schedule multi-robot cooperative additive manufacturing (AM). The results obtained using the decentralized approach are compared with those obtained from an optimization-based method, representing the class of centralized approaches for manufacturing scheduling. Two simulated case studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of both approaches in total makespan. In the first case, four rectangular bars of different dimensions from small to large are printed. Each bar is first divided into small subtasks (called chunks), and four robots are then assigned to cooperatively print the resulting chunks. The second case study focuses on testing geometric complexity, where four robots are used to print a mask stencil (an inverse stencil, not face covering). The result shows that the centralized approach provides a better solution (shorter makespan) compared to the decentralized approach for small-scale problems (i.e., a few robots and chunks). However, the gap between the solutions shrinks while the scale increases, and the decentralized approach outperforms the centralized approach for large-scale problems. Additionally, the runtime for the centralized approach increased by 39-fold for the extra-large problem (600 chunks and four robots) compared to the small-scale problem (20 chunks and four robots). In contrast, the runtime for the decentralized approach was not affected by the scale of the problem. Finally, a Monte-Carlo analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of the centralized approach against uncertainties in AM. The result shows that the variations in the printing time of different robots can lead to a significant discrepancy between the generated plan and the actual implementation, thereby causing collisions between robots that should have not happened if there were no uncertainties. On the other hand, the decentralized approach is more robust because a collision-free schedule is generated in real-time. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024