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  1. Abstract

    The ability to generate and control strong long-range interactions via highly excited electronic states has been the foundation for recent breakthroughs in a host of areas, from atomic and molecular physics to quantum optics and technology. Rydberg excitons provide a promising solid-state realization of such highly excited states, for which record-breaking orbital sizes of up to a micrometer have indeed been observed in cuprous oxide semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate the generation and control of strong exciton interactions in this material by optically producing two distinct quantum states of Rydberg excitons. This is made possible by two-color pump-probe experiments thatmore »allow for a detailed probing of the interactions. Our experiments reveal the emergence of strong spatial correlations and an inter-state Rydberg blockade that extends over remarkably large distances of several micrometers. The generated many-body states of semiconductor excitons exhibit universal properties that only depend on the shape of the interaction potential and yield clear evidence for its vastly extended-range and power-law character.

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  2. Abstract Noncommuting conserved quantities have recently launched a subfield of quantum thermodynamics. In conventional thermodynamics, a system of interest and an environment exchange quantities—energy, particles, electric charge, etc.—that are globally conserved and are represented by Hermitian operators. These operators were implicitly assumed to commute with each other, until a few years ago. Freeing the operators to fail to commute has enabled many theoretical discoveries—about reference frames, entropy production, resource-theory models, etc. Little work has bridged these results from abstract theory to experimental reality. This paper provides a methodology for building this bridge systematically: we present a prescription for constructing Hamiltoniansmore »that conserve noncommuting quantities globally while transporting the quantities locally. The Hamiltonians can couple arbitrarily many subsystems together and can be integrable or nonintegrable. Our Hamiltonians may be realized physically with superconducting qudits, with ultracold atoms, and with trapped ions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract We investigate the ground-state properties of weakly repulsive one-dimensional bosons in the presence of an attractive zero-range impurity potential. First, we derive mean-field solutions to the problem on a finite ring for the two asymptotic cases: (i) all bosons are bound to the impurity and (ii) all bosons are in a scattering state. Moreover, we derive the critical line that separates these regimes in the parameter space. In the thermodynamic limit, this critical line determines the maximum number of bosons that can be bound by the impurity potential, forming an artificial atom. Second, we validate the mean-field results usingmore »the flow equation approach and the multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for atomic mixtures. While beyond-mean-field effects destroy long-range order in the Bose gas, the critical boson number is unaffected. Our findings are important for understanding such artificial atoms in low-density Bose gases with static and mobile impurities.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2023
  5. Abstract The recent observation of high-lying Rydberg states of excitons in semiconductors with relatively high binding energy motivates exploring their applications in quantum nonlinear optics and quantum information processing. Here, we study Rydberg excitation dynamics of a mesoscopic array of excitons to demonstrate its application in simulation of quantum many-body dynamics. We show that the Z 2 -ordered phase can be reached using physical parameters available for cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) by optimizing driving laser parameters such as duration, intensity, and frequency. In an example, we study the application of our proposed system to solving the maximum independent setmore »problem based on the Rydberg blockade effect.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2023
  6. Abstract Interacting many-body systems in reduced-dimensional settings, such as ladders and few-layer systems, are characterized by enhanced quantum fluctuations. Recently, two-dimensional bilayer systems have sparked considerable interest because they can host unusual phases, including unconventional superconductivity. Here we present a theoretical proposal for realizing high-temperature pairing of fermions in a class of bilayer Hubbard models. We introduce a general and highly efficient pairing mechanism for mobile charge carriers in doped antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. The pairing is caused by the energy that one charge gains when it follows the path created by another charge. We show that this mechanism leads tomore »the formation of highly mobile but tightly bound pairs in the case of mixed-dimensional Fermi–Hubbard bilayer systems. This setting is closely related to the Fermi–Hubbard model believed to capture the physics of copper oxides, and can be realized in currently available ultracold atom experiments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
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  10. Abstract The complexity of quantum states has become a key quantity of interest across various subfields of physics, from quantum computing to the theory of black holes. The evolution of generic quantum systems can be modelled by considering a collection of qubits subjected to sequences of random unitary gates. Here we investigate how the complexity of these random quantum circuits increases by considering how to construct a unitary operation from Haar-random two-qubit quantum gates. Implementing the unitary operation exactly requires a minimal number of gates—this is the operation’s exact circuit complexity. We prove a conjecture that this complexity grows linearly,more »before saturating when the number of applied gates reaches a threshold that grows exponentially with the number of qubits. Our proof overcomes difficulties in establishing lower bounds for the exact circuit complexity by combining differential topology and elementary algebraic geometry with an inductive construction of Clifford circuits.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023