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  1. One of the most efficient and promising separation alternatives to thermal methods such as distillation is the use of polymeric membranes that separate mixtures based on molecular size or chemical affinity. Self-assembled block copolymer membranes have gained considerable attention within the membrane field due to precise control over nanoscale structure, pore size, and chemical versatility. Despite the rapid progress and excitement, a significant hurdle in using block copolymer membranes for nanometer and sub-nanometer separations such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis is the lower limit on domain size features. Strategies such as polymer post-functionalization, self-assembly of oligomers, liquid crystals, and random copolymers, or incorporation of artificial/natural channels within block copolymer materials are future directions with the potential to overcome current limitations with respect to separation size. 
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