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  1. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for new physics in final states consisting of at least one photon, multiple jets, and large missing transverse momentum is presented, using proton-proton collision events at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb1, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC from 2016 to 2018. The events are divided into mutually exclusive bins characterized by the missing transverse momentum, the number of jets, the number of b-tagged jets, and jets consistent with the presence of hadronically decaying W, Z, or Higgs bosons. The observed data are found to be consistent with the prediction from standard model processes. The results are interpreted in the context of simplified models of pair production of supersymmetric particles via strong and electroweak interactions. Depending on the details of the signal models, gluinos and squarks of masses up to 2.35 and 1.43 TeV, respectively, and electroweakinos of masses up to 1.23 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The mass of the top quark is measured in 36.3$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1of LHC proton–proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at$$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$s=13TeV. The measurement uses a sample of top quark pair candidate events containing one isolated electron or muon and at least four jets in the final state. For each event, the mass is reconstructed from a kinematic fit of the decay products to a top quark pair hypothesis. A profile likelihood method is applied using up to four observables per event to extract the top quark mass. The top quark mass is measured to be$$171.77\pm 0.37\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$171.77±0.37GeV. This approach significantly improves the precision over previous measurements.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    A search for decays to invisible particles of Higgs bosons produced in association with a top-antitop quark pair or a vector boson, which both decay to a fully hadronic final state, has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at$${\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}}$$s=13TeVby the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1. The 95% confidence level upper limit set on the branching fraction of the 125$$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$GeVHiggs boson to invisible particles,$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv), is 0.54 (0.39 expected), assuming standard model production cross sections. The results of this analysis are combined with previous$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)searches carried out at$${\sqrt{s}=7}$$s=7, 8, and 13$$\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$TeVin complementary production modes. The combined upper limit at 95% confidence level on$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)is 0.15 (0.08 expected).

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  5. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for high-mass dimuon resonance production in association with one or more b quark jets is presented. The study uses proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Model-independent limits are derived on the number of signal events with exactly one or more than one b quark jet. Results are also interpreted in a lepton-flavor-universal model with Z′ boson couplings to a bb quark pair (gb), an sb quark pair (gbδbs), and any same-flavor charged lepton (g) or neutrino pair (gν), with|gν|=|g|. For a Z′ boson with a mass$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZ= 350 GeV (2 TeV) andbs|< 0.25, the majority of the parameter space with 0.0057 <|g|< 0.35 (0.25 <|g|< 0.43) and 0.0079 < |gb| < 0.46 (0.34 < |gb| < 0.57) is excluded at 95% confidence level. Finally, constraints are set on a Z′ model with parameters consistent with low-energy b → sℓℓmeasurements. In this scenario, most of the allowed parameter space is excluded for a Z′ boson with 350 <$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZ< 500 GeV, while the constraints are less stringent for higher$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZhypotheses. This is the first dedicated search at the LHC for a high-mass dimuon resonance produced in association with multiple b quark jets, and the constraints obtained on models with this signature are the most stringent to date.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  6. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) Fourier coefficients describing the azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt (from b-hadron decays) J/ψ, as well as prompt ψ(2S) mesons are measured in lead-lead collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of$$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$sNN= 5.02 TeV. The analysis uses a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.61 nb1recorded with the CMS detector. The J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons are reconstructed using their dimuon decay channel. Thev2andv3coefficients are extracted using the scalar product method and studied as functions of meson transverse momentum and collision centrality. The measuredv2values for prompt J/ψ mesons are found to be larger than those for nonprompt J/ψ mesons. The prompt J/ψv2values at highpTare found to be underpredicted by a model incorporating only parton energy loss effects in a quark-gluon plasma medium. Prompt and nonprompt J/ψ mesonv3and prompt ψ(2S)v2andv3values are also reported for the first time, providing new information about heavy quark interactions in the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  7. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for supersymmetry is presented in events with a single charged lepton, electron or muon, and multiple hadronic jets. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The search targets gluino pair production, where the gluinos decay into final states with the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) and either a top quark-antiquark ($$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$tt¯) pair, or a light-flavor quark-antiquark ($$ \textrm{q}\overline{\textrm{q}} $$qq¯) pair and a virtual or on-shell W boson. The main backgrounds,$$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$tt¯pair and W+jets production, are suppressed by requirements on the azimuthal angle between the momenta of the lepton and of its reconstructed parent W boson candidate, and by top quark and W boson identification based on a machine-learning technique. The number of observed events is consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. Limits are evaluated on supersymmetric particle masses in the context of two simplified models of gluino pair production. Exclusions for gluino masses reach up to 2120 (2050) GeV at 95% confidence level for a model with gluino decay to a$$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$tt¯pair (a$$ \textrm{q}\overline{\textrm{q}} $$qq¯pair and a W boson) and the LSP. For the same models, limits on the mass of the LSP reach up to 1250 (1070) GeV.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  8. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for a charged Higgs boson H±decaying into a heavy neutral Higgs boson H and a W boson is presented. The analysis targets the H decay into a pair of tau leptons with at least one of them decaying hadronically and with an additional electron or muon present in the event. The search is based on proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment during 2016–2018 at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1. The data are consistent with standard model background expectations. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the product of the cross section and branching fraction for an H±in the mass range of 300–700 GeV, assuming an H with a mass of 200 GeV. The observed limits range from 0.085 pb for an H±mass of 300 Ge V to 0.019 pb for a mass of 700 GeV. These are the first limits on H±production in the H±HW±decay channel at the LHC.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    A generic search is presented for the associated production of a Z boson or a photon with an additional unspecified massive particle X,$${\textrm{pp}}\rightarrow {\textrm{pp}} +{{\textrm{Z}}}/\upgamma +{{\textrm{X}}} $$pppp+Z/γ+X, in proton-tagged events from proton–proton collisions at$$\sqrt{s}=13\, \textrm{TeV}$$s=13TeV, recorded in 2017 with the CMS detector and the CMS-TOTEM precision proton spectrometer. The missing mass spectrum is analysed in the 600–1600 GeV range and a fit is performed to search for possible deviations from the background expectation. No significant excess in data with respect to the background predictions has been observed. Model-independent upper limits on the visible production cross section of$${\textrm{pp}}\rightarrow {\textrm{pp}} +{{\textrm{Z}}}/\upgamma +{{\textrm{X}}} $$pppp+Z/γ+Xare set.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  10. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    The results of a search for Higgs boson pair (HH) production in the WW*WW*, WW*ττ, andττττdecay modes are presented. The search uses 138 fb1of proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV from 2016 to 2018. Analyzed events contain two, three, or four reconstructed leptons, including electrons, muons, and hadronically decaying tau leptons. No evidence for a signal is found in the data. Upper limits are set on the cross section for nonresonant HH production, as well as resonant production in which a new heavy particle decays to a pair of Higgs bosons. For nonresonant production, the observed (expected) upper limit on the cross section at 95% confidence level (CL) is 21.3 (19.4) times the standard model (SM) prediction. The observed (expected) ratio of the trilinear Higgs boson self-coupling to its value in the SM is constrained to be within the interval −6.9 to 11.1 (−6.9 to 11.7) at 95% CL, and limits are set on a variety of new-physics models using an effective field theory approach. The observed (expected) limits on the cross section for resonant HH production range from 0.18 to 0.90 (0.08 to 1.06) pb at 95% CL for new heavy-particle masses in the range 250–1000 GeV.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024