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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Abstract The thermal rearrangements of 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles have been shown to lead to trapping products of cyclopenta[b]pyrazine carbene intermediates. Here we show that a similar rearrangement also occurs in the case of 1,2-diethynyl-1H-pyrrole, and that trapping the intermediate cyclopenta[b]pyridine carbene with solvent THF affords an ylide that undergoes a Stevens rearrangement to a spirocyclic product. An analogous rearrangement and trapping is observed for thermolysis of 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles in THF or 1,4-dioxane.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Plant polyphenols, such as the African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea)-derived bis-catechol rooperol, can display promising anticancer activity yet suffer from rapid metabolism. Embarking upon a program to systematically examine potentially more metabolically stable replacements for the catechol rings in rooperol, we report here a general, scalable synthesis of rooperol and analogues that builds on our previous synthetic approach incorporating a key Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling strategy. Using this approach, we have prepared and evaluated the cancer cell cytotoxicity of rooperol and a series of analogues. While none of the analogues examined here were superior to rooperol in preventing the growth of cancer cells, analogues containing phenol or methylenedioxyphenyl replacements for one or both catechol rings were nearly as effective as rooperol.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. Polythiophenes (PTs) constitute a diverse array of promising materials for conducting polymer applications. However, many of the synthetic methods to produce PTs have been optimized only for the prototypical alkyl-substituted example poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Improvement of these methods beyond P3HT is key to enabling the widespread application of PTs. In this work, P3HT and two ether-substituted PTs poly(2-dodecyl-2H,3H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine) (PEDOT-C12) and poly(3,4-bis(hexyloxy)thiophene) (PBHOT) are synthesized by the FeCl3-initiated oxidative method under different conditions. Polymerization was carried out according to a common literature procedure (“reverse addition”) and a modified method (“standard addition”), which differ by the solvent system and the order of addition of reagents to the reaction mixture. Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) was performed to determine the impact of the different methods on the molecular weights (Mw) and degree of polymerization (Xw) of the polymers relative to polystyrene standards. The standard addition method produced ether-substituted PTs with higher Mw and Xw than those produced using the reverse addition method for sterically unhindered monomers. For P3HT, the highest Mw and Xw were obtained using the reverse addition method. The results show the oxidation potential of the monomer and solution has the greatest impact on the yield and Xw obtained and should be carefully consideredmore »when optimizing the reaction conditions for different monomers.« less