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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Background There is increased interest in using artificial intelligence (AI) to provide participation-focused pediatric re/habilitation. Existing reviews on the use of AI in participation-focused pediatric re/habilitation focus on interventions and do not screen articles based on their definition of participation. AI-based assessments may help reduce provider burden and can support operationalization of the construct under investigation. To extend knowledge of the landscape on AI use in participation-focused pediatric re/habilitation, a scoping review on AI-based participation-focused assessments is needed. Objective To understand how the construct of participation is captured and operationalized in pediatric re/habilitation using AI. Methods We conducted a scoping review of literature published in Pubmed, PsycInfo, ERIC, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, ACL Anthology, AAAI Digital Library, and Google Scholar. Documents were screened by 2–3 independent researchers following a systematic procedure and using the following inclusion criteria: (1) focuses on capturing participation using AI; (2) includes data on children and/or youth with a congenital or acquired disability; and (3) published in English. Data from included studies were extracted [e.g., demographics, type(s) of AI used], summarized, and sorted into categories of participation-related constructs. Results Twenty one out of 3,406 documents were included. Included assessment approachesmore »mainly captured participation through annotated observations ( n = 20; 95%), were administered in person ( n = 17; 81%), and applied machine learning ( n = 20; 95%) and computer vision ( n = 13; 62%). None integrated the child or youth perspective and only one included the caregiver perspective. All assessment approaches captured behavioral involvement, and none captured emotional or cognitive involvement or attendance. Additionally, 24% ( n = 5) of the assessment approaches captured participation-related constructs like activity competencies and 57% ( n = 12) captured aspects not included in contemporary frameworks of participation. Conclusions Main gaps for future research include lack of: (1) research reporting on common demographic factors and including samples representing the population of children and youth with a congenital or acquired disability; (2) AI-based participation assessment approaches integrating the child or youth perspective; (3) remotely administered AI-based assessment approaches capturing both child or youth attendance and involvement; and (4) AI-based assessment approaches aligning with contemporary definitions of participation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 14, 2023
  3. Background In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in research on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve child and youth participation in daily life activities, which is a key rehabilitation outcome. However, existing reviews place variable focus on participation, are narrow in scope, and are restricted to select diagnoses, hindering interpretability regarding the existing scope of AI applications that target the participation of children and youth in a pediatric rehabilitation setting. Objective The aim of this scoping review is to examine how AI is integrated into pediatric rehabilitation interventions targeting the participation of children and youth with disabilities or other diagnosed health conditions in valued activities. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search using established Applied Health Sciences and Computer Science databases. Two independent researchers screened and selected the studies based on a systematic procedure. Inclusion criteria were as follows: participation was an explicit study aim or outcome or the targeted focus of the AI application; AI was applied as part of the provided and tested intervention; children or youth with a disability or other diagnosed health conditions were the focus of either the study or AI application or both; and the study was publishedmore »in English. Data were mapped according to the types of AI, the mode of delivery, the type of personalization, and whether the intervention addressed individual goal-setting. Results The literature search identified 3029 documents, of which 94 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used multiple applications of AI with the highest prevalence of robotics (72/94, 77%) and human-machine interaction (51/94, 54%). Regarding mode of delivery, most of the included studies described an intervention delivered in-person (84/94, 89%), and only 11% (10/94) were delivered remotely. Most interventions were tailored to groups of individuals (93/94, 99%). Only 1% (1/94) of interventions was tailored to patients’ individually reported participation needs, and only one intervention (1/94, 1%) described individual goal-setting as part of their therapy process or intervention planning. Conclusions There is an increasing amount of research on interventions using AI to target the participation of children and youth with disabilities or other diagnosed health conditions, supporting the potential of using AI in pediatric rehabilitation. On the basis of our results, 3 major gaps for further research and development were identified: a lack of remotely delivered participation-focused interventions using AI; a lack of individual goal-setting integrated in interventions; and a lack of interventions tailored to individually reported participation needs of children, youth, or families.« less