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  1. Abstract

    Here we revisit the topic of stationary and propagating solitonic excitations in self-repulsive three-dimensional (3D) Bose–Einstein condensates by quantitatively comparing theoretical analysis and associated numerical computations with our experimental results. Motivated by numerous experimental efforts, including our own herein, we use fully 3D numerical simulations to explore the existence, stability, and evolution dynamics of planar dark solitons. This also allows us to examine their instability-induced decay products including solitonic vortices and vortex rings. In the trapped case and with no adjustable parameters, our numerical findings are in correspondence with experimentally observed coherent structures. Without a longitudinal trap, we identify numerically exact traveling solutions and quantify how their transverse destabilization threshold changes as a function of the solitary wave speed.

     
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  2. We explore the dynamics and interactions of multiple bright droplets and bubbles, as well as the interactions of kinks with droplets and with antikinks, in the extended one-dimensional Gross–Pitaevskii model including the Lee–Huang–Yang correction. Existence regions are identified for the one-dimensional droplets and bubbles in terms of their chemical potential, verifying the stability of the droplets and exposing the instability of the bubbles. The limiting case of the droplet family is a stable kink. The interactions between droplets demonstrate in-phase (out-of-phase) attraction (repulsion), with the so-called Manton’s method explicating the observed dynamical response, and mixed behavior for intermediate values of the phase shift. Droplets bearing different chemical potentials experience mass-exchange phenomena. Individual bubbles exhibit core expansion and mutual attraction prior to their destabilization. Droplets interacting with kinks are absorbed by them, a process accompanied by the emission of dispersive shock waves and gray solitons. Kink–antikink interactions are repulsive, generating counter-propagating shock waves. Our findings reveal dynamical features of droplets and kinks that can be detected in current experiments. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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