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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 11, 2024
  3. Deep Neural Network (DNN) acceleration with digital Processing-in-Memory (PIM) platforms at the edge is an actively-explored domain with great potential to not only address memory-wall bottlenecks but to offer orders of performance improvement in comparison to the von-Neumann architecture. On the other side, FPGA-based edge computing has been followed as a potential solution to accelerate compute-intensive workloads. In this work, adopting low-bit-width neural networks, we perform a solid and comparative inference performance analysis of a recent processing-in-SRAM tape-out with a low-resource FPGA board and a high-performance GPU to provide a guideline for the research community. We explore and highlight the key architectural constraints of these edge candidates that impact their overall performance. Our experimental data demonstrate that the processing-in-SRAM can obtain up to ~160x speed-up and up to 228x higher efficiency (img/s/W) compared to the under-test FPGA on the CIFAR-10 dataset. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2024
  4. In this paper, we propose IMA-GNN as an In-Memory Accelerator for centralized and decentralized Graph Neural Network inference, explore its potential in both settings and provide a guideline for the community targeting flexible and efficient edge computation. Leveraging IMA-GNN, we first model the computation and communication latencies of edge devices. We then present practical case studies on GNN-based taxi demand and supply prediction and also adopt four large graph datasets to quantitatively compare and analyze centralized and decentralized settings. Our cross-layer simulation results demonstrate that on average, IMA-GNN in the centralized setting can obtain ~790x communication speed-up compared to the decentralized GNN setting. However, the decentralized setting performs computation ~1400x faster while reducing the power consumption per device. This further underlines the need for a hybrid semi-decentralized GNN approach. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2024
  5. In this work, we leverage the uni-polar switching behavior of Spin-Orbit Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (SOT-MRAM) to develop an efficient digital Computing-in-Memory (CiM) platform named XOR-CiM. XOR-CiM converts typical MRAM sub-arrays to massively parallel computational cores with ultra-high bandwidth, greatly reducing energy consumption dealing with convolutional layers and accelerating X(N)OR-intensive Binary Neural Networks (BNNs) inference. With a similar inference accuracy to digital CiMs, XOR-CiM achieves ∼4.5× and 1.8× higher energy-efficiency and speed-up compared to the recent MRAM-based CiM platforms. 
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  6. In this work, we propose a Parallel Processing-In-DRAM architecture named P-PIM leveraging the high density of DRAM to enable fast and flexible computation. P-PIM enables bulk bit-wise in-DRAM logic between operands in the same bit-line by elevating the analog operation of the memory sub-array based on a novel dual-row activation mechanism. With this, P-PIM can opportunistically perform a complete and inexpensive in-DRAM RowHammer (RH) self-tracking and mitigation technique to protect the memory unit against such a challenging security vulnerability. Our results show that P-PIM achieves ~72% higher energy efficiency than the fastest charge-sharing-based designs. As for the RH protection, with a worst-case slowdown of ~0.8%, P-PIM archives up to 71% energy-saving over the SRAM/CAM-based frameworks and about 90% saving over DRAM-based frameworks. 
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  7. In this work, a high-speed and energy-efficient comparator-based N ear- S ensor L ocal B inary P attern accelerator architecture (NS-LBP) is proposed to execute a novel local binary pattern deep neural network. First, inspired by recent LBP networks, we design an approximate, hardware-oriented, and multiply-accumulate (MAC)-free network named Ap-LBP for efficient feature extraction, further reducing the computation complexity. Then, we develop NS-LBP as a processing-in-SRAM unit and a parallel in-memory LBP algorithm to process images near the sensor in a cache, remarkably reducing the power consumption of data transmission to an off-chip processor. Our circuit-to-application co-simulation results on MNIST and SVHN datasets demonstrate minor accuracy degradation compared to baseline CNN and LBP-network models, while NS-LBP achieves 1.25 GHz and an energy-efficiency of 37.4 TOPS/W. NS-LBP reduces energy consumption by 2.2× and execution time by a factor of 4× compared to the best recent LBP-based networks. 
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