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  1. Abstract

    The architectures of deep artificial neural networks (DANNs) are routinely studied to improve their predictive performance. However, the relationship between the architecture of a DANN and its robustness to noise and adversarial attacks is less explored, especially in computer vision applications. Here we investigate the relationship between the robustness of DANNs in a vision task and their underlying graph architectures or structures. First we explored the design space of architectures of DANNs using graph-theoretic robustness measures and transformed the graphs to DANN architectures using various image classification tasks. Then we explored the relationship between the robustness of trained DANNs against noise and adversarial attacks and their underlying architectures. We show that robustness performance of DANNs can be quantified before training using graph structural properties such as topological entropy and Olivier-Ricci curvature, with the greatest reliability for complex tasks and large DANNs. Our results can also be applied for tasks other than computer vision such as natural language processing and recommender systems.

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  2. The advancements in data acquisition, storage, and processing techniques have resulted in the rapid growth of heterogeneous medical data. Integrating radiological scans, histopathology images, and molecular information with clinical data is essential for developing a holistic understanding of the disease and optimizing treatment. The need for integrating data from multiple sources is further pronounced in complex diseases such as cancer for enabling precision medicine and personalized treatments. This work proposes Multimodal Integration of Oncology Data System (MINDS)—a flexible, scalable, and cost-effective metadata framework for efficiently fusing disparate data from public sources such as the Cancer Research Data Commons (CRDC) into an interconnected, patient-centric framework. MINDS consolidates over 41,000 cases from across repositories while achieving a high compression ratio relative to the 3.78 PB source data size. It offers sub-5-s query response times for interactive exploration. MINDS offers an interface for exploring relationships across data types and building cohorts for developing large-scale multimodal machine learning models. By harmonizing multimodal data, MINDS aims to potentially empower researchers with greater analytical ability to uncover diagnostic and prognostic insights and enable evidence-based personalized care. MINDS tracks granular end-to-end data provenance, ensuring reproducibility and transparency. The cloud-native architecture of MINDS can handle exponential data growth in a secure, cost-optimized manner while ensuring substantial storage optimization, replication avoidance, and dynamic access capabilities. Auto-scaling, access controls, and other mechanisms guarantee pipelines’ scalability and security. MINDS overcomes the limitations of existing biomedical data silos via an interoperable metadata-driven approach that represents a pivotal step toward the future of oncology data integration.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Digital pathology has transformed the traditional pathology practice of analyzing tissue under a microscope into a computer vision workflow. Whole-slide imaging allows pathologists to view and analyze microscopic images on a computer monitor, enabling computational pathology. By leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), computational pathology has emerged as a promising field in recent years. Recently, task-specific AI/ML (eg, convolutional neural networks) has risen to the forefront, achieving above-human performance in many image-processing and computer vision tasks. The performance of task-specific AI/ML models depends on the availability of many annotated training datasets, which presents a rate-limiting factor for AI/ML development in pathology. Task-specific AI/ML models cannot benefit from multimodal data and lack generalization, eg, the AI models often struggle to generalize to new datasets or unseen variations in image acquisition, staining techniques, or tissue types. The 2020s are witnessing the rise of foundation models and generative AI. A foundation model is a large AI model trained using sizable data, which is later adapted (or fine-tuned) to perform different tasks using a modest amount of task-specific annotated data. These AI models provide in-context learning, can self-correct mistakes, and promptly adjust to user feedback. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in computational pathology enabled by task-specific AI, their challenges and limitations, and then introduce various foundation models. We propose to create a pathology-specific generative AI based on multimodal foundation models and present its potentially transformative role in digital pathology. We describe different use cases, delineating how it could serve as an expert companion of pathologists and help them efficiently and objectively perform routine laboratory tasks, including quantifying image analysis, generating pathology reports, diagnosis, and prognosis. We also outline the potential role that foundation models and generative AI can play in standardizing the pathology laboratory workflow, education, and training. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 18, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 6, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 9, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024