skip to main content

Search for: All records

Editors contains: "Buan, Nicole R."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Buan, Nicole R. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Proper disinfection of harvested food and water is critical to minimize infectious disease. Grape seed extract (GSE), a commonly used health supplement, is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols. Polyphenols possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, but antiviral effects are not well-known. Here we show that GSE outperformed chemical disinfectants (e.g., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. GSE induced virus aggregation, a process that correlated with a decrease in virus titers. This aggregation and disinfection were not reversible. Molecular docking simulations indicate that polyphenols potentially formed hydrogen bonds and strong hydrophobic interactions with specific residues in viral capsid proteins. Together, these data suggest that polyphenols physically associate with viral capsid proteins to aggregate viruses as a means to inhibit virus entry into the host cell. Plant-based polyphenols like GSE are an attractive alternative to chemical disinfectants to remove infectious viruses from water or food. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are major food- and waterborne pathogens, causing approximately 20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis cases in developing and developed countries. Proper sanitation or disinfection are critical strategies to minimize human norovirus-caused disease until a reliable vaccine is created. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a mixture ofmore »plant-derived polyphenols used as a health supplement. Polyphenols are known for antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibiofilm activities, but antiviral effects are not well-known. In studies presented here, plant-derived polyphenols outperformed chemical disinfectants (i.e., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. Based on data from molecular assays and molecular docking simulations, the current model is that the polyphenols in GSE bind to the Tulane virus capsid, an event that triggers virion aggregation. It is thought that this aggregation prevents Tulane virus from entering host cells.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 10, 2023
  2. Buan, Nicole R. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 grows autotrophically either by Fe(II) oxidation or by thiosulfate oxidation, in contrast to most other isolates of neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). This provides a unique opportunity to explore the physiology of a facultative FeOB and constrain the genes specific to Fe(II) oxidation. We compared the growth of S. lithotrophicus ES-1 on Fe(II), thiosulfate, and both substrates together. While initial growth rates were similar, thiosulfate-grown cultures had higher yield with or without Fe(II) present, which may give ES-1 an advantage over obligate FeOB. To investigate the Fe(II) and S oxidation pathways, we conducted transcriptomics experiments, validated with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). We explored the long-term gene expression response at different growth phases (over days to a week) and expression changes during a short-term switch from thiosulfate to Fe(II) (90 min). The dsr and sox sulfur oxidation genes were upregulated in thiosulfate cultures. The Fe(II) oxidase gene cyc2 was among the top expressed genes during both Fe(II) and thiosulfate oxidation, and addition of Fe(II) to thiosulfate-grown cells caused an increase in cyc2 expression. These results support the role of Cyc2 as the Fe(II) oxidase and suggest that ES-1 maintains readiness to oxidize Fe(II), even in the absence ofmore »Fe(II). We used gene expression profiles to further constrain the ES-1 Fe(II) oxidation pathway. Notably, among the most highly upregulated genes during Fe(II) oxidation were genes for alternative complex III, reverse electron transport, and carbon fixation. This implies a direct connection between Fe(II) oxidation and carbon fixation, suggesting that CO 2 is an important electron sink for Fe(II) oxidation. IMPORTANCE Neutrophilic FeOB are increasingly observed in various environments, but knowledge of their ecophysiology and Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms is still relatively limited. Sideroxydans isolates are widely observed in aquifers, wetlands, and sediments, and genome analysis suggests metabolic flexibility contributes to their success. The type strain ES-1 is unusual among neutrophilic FeOB isolates, as it can grow on either Fe(II) or a non-Fe(II) substrate, thiosulfate. Almost all our knowledge of neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidation pathways comes from genome analyses, with some work on metatranscriptomes. This study used culture-based experiments to test the genes specific to Fe(II) oxidation in a facultative FeOB and refine our model of the Fe(II) oxidation pathway. We gained insight into how facultative FeOB like ES-1 connect Fe, S, and C biogeochemical cycling in the environment and suggest a multigene indicator would improve understanding of Fe(II) oxidation activity in environments with facultative FeOB.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 25, 2023