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  1. Dunlop, M. ; Lühr, H. (Ed.)
    Birkeland currents that flow in the auroral zones produce perturbation magnetic fields that may be detected using magnetometers onboard low-Earth orbit satellites. The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) uses magnetic field data from the attitude control system of each Iridium satellite. These data are processed to obtain the location, intensity and dynamics of the Birkeland currents. The methodology is based on an orthogonal basis function expansion and associated data fitting. The theory of magnetic fields and currents on spherical shells provides the mathematical basis for generating the AMPERE science data products. The application of spherical cap harmonicmore »basis and elementary current system methods to the Iridium data are discussed and the procedures for generating the AMPERE science data products are described.« less
  2. Dunlop, M. W. ; Lühr, H. (Ed.)
    Polar ionospheric electrodynamics plays an important role in the Sun–Earth connection chain, acting as one of the major driving forces of the upper atmosphere and providing us with a means to probe physical processes in the distant magnetosphere. Accurate specification of the constantly changing conditions of high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics has long been of paramount interest to the geospace science community. The Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics procedure, developed with an emphasis on inverting ground-based magnetometer observations for historical reasons, has long been used in the geospace science community as a way to obtain complete maps of high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics bymore »overcoming the limitations of a given geospace monitoring system. This Chapter presents recent technical progress on inverse and data assimilation procedures motivated primarily by availability of regular monitoring of high-latitude electrodynamics by space-borne instruments. The method overview describes how electrodynamic state variables are represented with polar-cap spherical harmonics and how coefficients are estimated from the point of view of the Bayesian inferential framework. Some examples of the recent applications to analysis of SuperDARN plasma drift, Iridium, and DMSP magnetic fields, as well as DMSP auroral particle precipitation data are included to demonstrate the method.« less