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  1. Frank, B. W. ; Jones, D. L. (Ed.)
  2. Frank, B. W. ; Jones D. L. ; Ryan, Q. X. (Ed.)
  3. Frank, B. W. ; Jones, D. L. ; and Ryan, Q. X. (Ed.)
    In this paper, we analyze video recordings of students working on tutorials in Zoom breakout rooms in an upper-division quantum mechanics course. We investigate group behaviors in this virtual environment, including the effects of instructor presence. To this end, we modify the Color Frames coding scheme introduced by Scherr to suit the virtual nature of the interactions. By broadening the frames and allowing for multiple overlapping frames, we are able to describe some group behaviors not otherwise captured. For example, in some instances, students take on an authoritative role in the group, and in other instances, groups engage in overtly casual behavior while nonetheless having on-topic discussions. We observe significant variation in how much time each group spends in each frame, but find that all groups spend some time in all frames. Instructors can be present without dominating or eliminating discussion between students, and their presence need not significantly impact the time students spent in an "informal/friendly'' frame. However, instructor presence significantly reduces time spent working individually. Our findings will support additional research into the dynamics of student discussions during tutorials and aid ongoing development of online tutorials that can, e.g., be assigned for use outside of class. 
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  4. Bennett, M. B. ; Frank, B. W. ; Vieyra, R. (Ed.)
    With the ongoing antiracism movement in the United States, there is a call for physics teachers to incorporate equity-based and antiracist activities and curricula into their classrooms. In an online summer professional development course for high school physics teachers, we listened to participants define and compare antiracism and equity. We identified three framings (dual, part-whole, and developmental) that characterize these high school physics teachers' conceptions of the relationship between equity and antiracism. The framings offer insights into physics teachers' notions of anti-racist practice in relation to equity and their concerns regarding enacting equity and antiracism in teaching practice. 
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  5. Frank, B. W. ; Jones, D. L. ; and Ryan, Q. X. (Ed.)
    Significant attention in the PER community has been paid to student cognition and reasoning processes in undergraduate quantum mechanics. Until recently, however, these same topics have remained largely unexplored in the context of emerging interdisciplinary quantum information science (QIS) courses. We conducted exploratory interviews with 22 students in an upper-division quantum computing course at a large R1 university crosslisted in physics and computer science, as well as 6 graduate students in a similar graduate-level QIS course offered in physics. We classify and analyze students' responses to a pair of questions regarding the fundamental differences between classical and quantum computers. We specifically note two key themes of importance to educators: (1) when reasoning about computational power, students often struggled to distinguish between the relative effects of exponential and linear scaling, resulting in students frequently focusing on distinctions that are arguably better understood as analog-digital than classical-quantum, and (2) introducing the thought experiment of analog classical computers was a powerful tool for helping students develop a more expertlike perspective on the differences between classical and quantum computers. 
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  6. Bennett, M ; Wolf, S. ; Frank, B. W. (Ed.)
    Computer simulations for physics labs may be combined with hands-on lab equipment to boost student understanding and make labs more accessible. Hybrid labs of HTML5-based computer simulations and hands-on lab equipment for topics in mechanics were investigated in a large, algebra-based, studio physics course for life science students at a private, research-intensive institution. Computer simulations were combined with hands-on equipment and compared to traditional hands-on labs using an A/B testing protocol. Learning outcomes were measured for the specific topic of momentum conservation by comparing student scores on post-lab exercises, related quiz and exam questions, and a subset of questions on the Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey (EMCS) administered before and after instruction for both groups. We find that students who completed a hands-on lab vs. a hybrid lab showed no difference in performance on momentum assessments. 
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  7. Bennett, M. B. ; Frank, B. W. ; Vieyra, R. E. (Ed.)
    Physics is perceived to have a culture of exclusion, which includes not embracing individuals from certain demographics who are underrepresented in the field. Many who are from underrepresented groups have stated they feel impacted by cultural pressures to assimilate to what is traditionally considered a “physics person.” In order to better understand these cultural pressures this study examines statements from two physics teachers who participated in a summer professional development (PD) workshop. Throughout the summer PD, the two teachers made statements that described how physics culture impacted their identity and understanding of equity, which ultimately shaped their approach towards teaching. Analysis of teachers’ statements showed that physics culture impacted the teachers' views on instruction in the areas of inclusivity and shaping students' physics identity. This study has implications for research on the role of physics culture and how it impacts underrepresented students’ and teachers' identity and approach to equity. 
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  8. Bennett, M. B. ; Frank, B. W. ; Vieyra, R. E. (Ed.)
  9. Wolf, S. ; Bennett, M. B. ; Frank, B. W. (Ed.)
  10. Wolf, S ; Bennett, M. B. ; and Frank, B. W. (Ed.)