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  1. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    Infrastructures supporting distributed scientific collaborations must address competing goals in both providing high performance access to resources while simultaneously securing the infrastructure against security threats. The NetBASILISK project is attempting to improve the security of such infrastructures while not adversely impacting their performance. This paper will present our work to create a benchmark and monitoring infrastructure that allows us to test for any degradation in transferring data into a NetBASILISK protected site.
  2. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider provides a data challenge. The amount of data recorded from the experiments and transported to hundreds of sites will see a thirty fold increase in annual data volume. A systematic approach to contrast the performance of different Third Party Copy (TPC) transfer protocols arises. Two contenders, XRootD-HTTPS and the GridFTP are evaluated in their performance for transferring files from one server to another over 100Gbps interfaces. The benchmarking is done by scheduling pods on the Pacific Research Platform Kubernetes cluster to ensure reproducible and repeatable results. This opens a future pathway for network testing of any TPC transfer protocol.
  3. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    CMS is tackling the exploitation of CPU resources at HPC centers where compute nodes do not have network connectivity to the Internet. Pilot agents and payload jobs need to interact with external services from the compute nodes: access to the application software (CernVM-FS) and conditions data (Frontier), management of input and output data files (data management services), and job management (HTCondor). Finding an alternative route to these services is challenging. Seamless integration in the CMS production system without causing any operational overhead is a key goal. The case of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), in Spain, is particularly challenging, due to its especially restrictive network setup. We describe in this paper the solutions developed within CMS to overcome these restrictions, and integrate this resource in production. Singularity containers with application software releases are built and pre-placed in the HPC facility shared file system, together with conditions data files. HTCondor has been extended to relay communications between running pilot jobs and HTCondor daemons through the HPC shared file system. This operation mode also allows piping input and output data files through the HPC file system. Results, issues encountered during the integration process, and remaining concerns are discussed.
  4. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    The processing needs for the High Luminosity (HL) upgrade for the LHC require the CMS collaboration to harness the computational power available on non-CMS resources, such as High-Performance Computing centers (HPCs). These sites often limit the external network connectivity of their computational nodes. In this paper we describe a strategy in which all network connections of CMS jobs inside a facility are routed to a single point of external network connectivity using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) server by creating virtual network interfaces in the computational nodes. We show that when the computational nodes and the host running the VPN server have the namespaces capability enabled, the setup can run entirely on user space with no other root permissions required. The VPN server host may be a privileged node inside the facility configured for outside network access, or an external service that the nodes are allowed to contact. When namespaces are not enabled at the client side, then the setup falls back to using a SOCKS server instead of virtual network interfaces. We demonstrate the strategy by executing CMS Monte Carlo production requests on opportunistic non-CMS resources at the University of Notre Dame. For these jobs, cvmfs support is testedmore »via fusermount (cvmfsexec), and the native fuse module.« less
  5. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments generally employ sophisticated statistical methods to present results in searches of new physics. In the problem of searching for sterile neutrinos, likelihood ratio tests are applied to short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to construct confidence intervals for the parameters of interest. The test statistics of the form Δχ 2 is often used to form the confidence intervals, however, this approach can lead to statistical inaccuracies due to the small signal rate in the region-of-interest. In this paper, we present a computational model for the computationally expensive Feldman-Cousins corrections to construct a statistically accurate confidence interval for neutrino oscillation analysis. The program performs a grid-based minimization over oscillation parameters and is written in C++. Our algorithms make use of vectorization through Eigen3, yielding a single-core speed-up of 350 compared to the original implementation, and achieve MPI data parallelism by employing DIY. We demonstrate the strong scaling of the application at High-Performance Computing (HPC) sites. We utilize HDF5 along with HighFive to write the results of the calculation to file.
  6. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    We introduce the MINERvA Analysis Toolkit (MAT), a utility for centralizing the handling of systematic uncertainties in HEP analyses. The fundamental utilities of the toolkit are the MnvHnD, a powerful histogram container class, and the systematic Universe classes, which provide a modular implementation of the many universe error analysis approach. These products can be used stand-alone or as part of a complete error analysis prescription. They support the propagation of systematic uncertainty through all stages of analysis, and provide flexibility for an arbitrary level of user customization. This extensible solution to error analysis enables the standardization of systematic uncertainty definitions across an experiment and a transparent user interface to lower the barrier to entry for new analyzers.
  7. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    File formats for generic data structures, such as ROOT, Avro, and Parquet, pose a problem for deserialization: it must be fast, but its code depends on the type of the data structure, not known at compile-time. Just-in-time compilation can satisfy both constraints, but we propose a more portable solution: specialized virtual machines. AwkwardForth is a Forth-driven virtual machine for deserializing data into Awkward Arrays. As a language, it is not intended for humans to write, but it loosens the coupling between Uproot and Awkward Array. AwkwardForth programs for deserializing record-oriented formats (ROOT and Avro) are about as fast as C++ ROOT and 10–80× faster than fastavro. Columnar formats (simple TTrees, RNTuple, and Parquet) only require specialization to interpret metadata and are therefore faster with precompiled code.
  8. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    The intelligent Data Delivery Service (iDDS) has been developed to cope with the huge increase of computing and storage resource usage in the coming LHC data taking. iDDS has been designed to intelligently orchestrate workflow and data management systems, decoupling data pre-processing, delivery, and main processing in various workflows. It is an experiment-agnostic service around a workflow-oriented structure to work with existing and emerging use cases in ATLAS and other experiments. Here we will present the motivation for iDDS, its design schema and architecture, use cases and current status, and plans for the future.
  9. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    In High Energy Physics facilities that provide High Performance Computing environments provide an opportunity to efficiently perform the statistical inference required for analysis of data from the Large Hadron Collider, but can pose problems with orchestration and efficient scheduling. The compute architectures at these facilities do not easily support the Python compute model, and the configuration scheduling of batch jobs for physics often requires expertise in multiple job scheduling services. The combination of the pure-Python libraries pyhf and funcX reduces the common problem in HEP analyses of performing statistical inference with binned models, that would traditionally take multiple hours and bespoke scheduling, to an on-demand (fitting) “function as a service” that can scalably execute across workers in just a few minutes, offering reduced time to insight and inference. We demonstrate execution of a scalable workflow using funcX to simultaneously fit 125 signal hypotheses from a published ATLAS search for new physics using pyhf with a wall time of under 3 minutes. We additionally show performance comparisons for other physics analyses with openly published probability models and argue for a blueprint of fitting as a service systems at HPC centers.
  10. Biscarat, C. ; Campana, S. ; Hegner, B. ; Roiser, S. ; Rovelli, C.I. ; Stewart, G.A. (Ed.)
    We reframe common tasks in jet physics in probabilistic terms, including jet reconstruction, Monte Carlo tuning, matrix element – parton shower matching for large jet multiplicity, and efficient event generation of jets in complex, signal-like regions of phase space. We also introduce Ginkgo, a simplified, generative model for jets, that facilitates research into these tasks with techniques from statistics, machine learning, and combinatorial optimization. We also review some of the recent research in this direction that has been enabled with Ginkgo. We show how probabilistic programming can be used to efficiently sample the showering process, how a novel trellis algorithm can be used to efficiently marginalize over the enormous number of clustering histories for the same observed particles, and how the dynamic programming and reinforcement learning can be used to find the maximum likelihood clusterinng in this enormous search space. This work builds bridges with work in hierarchical clustering, statistics, combinatorial optmization, and reinforcement learning.