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  1. Silva, A. ; Leino, K.R.M. (Ed.)
    We study reinforcement learning for the optimal control of Branching Markov Decision Processes (BMDPs), a natural extension of (multitype) Branching Markov Chains (BMCs). The state of a (discrete-time) BMCs is a collection of entities of various types that, while spawning other entities, generate a payoff. In comparison with BMCs, where the evolution of a each entity of the same type follows the same probabilistic pattern, BMDPs allow an external controller to pick from a range of options. This permits us to study the best/worst behaviour of the system. We generalise model-free reinforcement learning techniques to compute an optimal control strategymore »of an unknown BMDP in the limit. We present results of an implementation that demonstrate the practicality of the approach.« less
  2. Silva, A. ; Leino, K.R.M. (Ed.)
    In the Adapter-Design Pattern, a programmer implements a Target interface by constructing an Adapter that accesses an existing Adaptee code. In this work, we presented a reactive synthesis interpretation to the adapter design pattern, wherein an algorithm takes an Adaptee and a Target transducers, and the aim is to synthesize an Adapter transducer that, when composed with the Adaptee, generates a behavior that is equivalent to the behavior of the Target. One use of such an algorithm is to synthesize controllers that achieve similar goals on different hardware platforms. While this problem can be solved with existing synthesis algorithms, currentmore »state-of-the-art tools fail to scale. To cope with the computational complexity of the problem, we introduced a special form of specification format, called Separated GR(k), which can be solved with a scalable synthesis algorithm but still allows for a large set of realistic specifications. We solved the realizability and the synthesis problems for Separated GR(k), and showed how to exploit the separated nature of our specification to construct better algorithms, in terms of time complexity, than known algorithms for GR(k) synthesis. We then described a tool, called SGR(k), which we have implemented based on the above approach and showed, by experimental evaluation, how our tool outperforms current state-of-the-art tools on various benchmarks and test-cases.« less