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  1. Millet, Oscar (Ed.)
    System biology relies on holistic biomolecule measurements, and untangling biochemical networks requires time-series metabolomics profiling. With current metabolomic approaches, time-series measurements can be taken for hundreds of metabolic features, which decode underlying metabolic regulation. Such a metabolomic dataset is untargeted with most features unannotated and inaccessible to statistical analysis and computational modeling. The high dimensionality of the metabolic space also causes mechanistic modeling to be rather cumbersome computationally. We implemented a faster exploratory workflow to visualize and extract chemical and biochemical dependencies. Time-series metabolic features (about 300 for each dataset) were extracted by Ridge Tracking-based Extract (RTExtract) on measurements from continuous in vivo monitoring of metabolism by NMR (CIVM-NMR) in Neurospora crassa under different conditions. The metabolic profiles were then smoothed and projected into lower dimensions, enabling a comparison of metabolic trends in the cultures. Next, we expanded incomplete metabolite annotation using a correlation network. Lastly, we uncovered meaningful metabolic clusters by estimating dependencies between smoothed metabolic profiles. We thus sidestepped the processes of time-consuming mechanistic modeling, difficult global optimization, and labor-intensive annotation. Multiple clusters guided insights into central energy metabolism and membrane synthesis. Dense connections with glucose 1-phosphate indicated its central position in metabolism in N . crassa .more »Our approach was benchmarked on simulated random network dynamics and provides a novel exploratory approach to analyzing high-dimensional metabolic dynamics.« less
  2. Millet, Oscar (Ed.)
    Cyp33 is an essential human cyclophilin prolyl isomerase that plays myriad roles in splicing and chromatin remodeling. In addition to a canonical cyclophilin (Cyp) domain, Cyp33 contains an RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domain, and RNA-binding triggers proline isomerase activity. One prominent role for Cyp33 is through a direct interaction with the mixed lineage leukemia protein 1 (MLL1, also known as KMT2A) complex, which is a histone methyltransferase that serves as a global regulator of human transcription. MLL activity is regulated by Cyp33, which isomerizes a key proline in the linker between the PHD3 and Bromo domains of MLL1, acting as a switch between gene activation and repression. The direct interaction between MLL1 and Cyp33 is critical, as deletion of the MLL1-PHD3 domain responsible for this interaction results in oncogenesis. The Cyp33 RRM is central to these activities, as it binds both the PHD3 domain and RNA. To better understand how RNA binding drives the action of Cyp33, we performed RNA-SELEX against full-length Cyp33 accompanied by deep sequencing. We have identified an enriched Cyp33 binding motif ( AAUAAUAA ) broadly represented in the cellular RNA pool as well as tightly binding RNA aptamers with affinities comparable and competitive with the Cyp33 MLL1-PHD3more »interaction. RNA binding extends beyond the canonical RRM domain, but not to the Cyp domain, suggesting an indirect mechanism of interaction. NMR chemical shift mapping confirms an overlapping, but not identical, interface on Cyp33 for RNA and PHD3 binding. This finding suggests RNA can disrupt the gene repressive Cyp33-MLL1 complex providing another layer of regulation for chromatin remodeling by MLL1.« less