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  1. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J.W. ; Dauphin, Y. (Ed.)
    Fairness and robustness are critical elements of Trustworthy AI that need to be addressed together. Fairness is about learning an unbiased model while robustness is about learning from corrupted data, and it is known that addressing only one of them may have an adverse affect on the other. In this work, we propose a sample selection-based algorithm for fair and robust training. To this end, we formulate a combinatorial optimization problem for the unbiased selection of samples in the presence of data corruption. Observing that solving this optimization problem is strongly NP-hard, we propose a greedy algorithm that is efficient and effective in practice. Experiments show that our method obtains fairness and robustness that are better than or comparable to the state-of-the-art technique, both on synthetic and benchmark real datasets. Moreover, unlike other fair and robust training baselines, our algorithm can be used by only modifying the sampling step in batch selection without changing the training algorithm or leveraging additional clean data. 
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  2. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J.W. ; Dauphin, Y. (Ed.)
    Federated Learning (FL) is a distributed learning framework, in which the local data never leaves clients’ devices to preserve privacy, and the server trains models on the data via accessing only the gradients of those local data. Without further privacy mechanisms such as differential privacy, this leaves the system vulnerable against an attacker who inverts those gradients to reveal clients’ sensitive data. However, a gradient is often insufficient to reconstruct the user data without any prior knowledge. By exploiting a generative model pretrained on the data distribution, we demonstrate that data privacy can be easily breached. Further, when such prior knowledge is unavailable, we investigate the possibility of learning the prior from a sequence of gradients seen in the process of FL training. We experimentally show that the prior in a form of generative model is learnable from iterative interactions in FL. Our findings demonstrate that additional mechanisms are necessary to prevent privacy leakage in FL. 
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