skip to main content

Title: Phosphate removal using aluminum-doped magnetic nanoparticles
Modern industrial waste waters often contain high concentrations of phosphate, and many methods have been explored to aid in its removal. This study investigates the use of magnetic nanoparticles as an adsorbent for phosphate removal. Aluminum-doped magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method. Structure and composition analysis of the prepared magnetic nanoparticles indicated an inverse spinal structure with a composition of FeAl0.75Fe1.25O4. These nanoparticles were tested for their phosphate removal properties, including adsorption capacity, selectivity, and kinetic models. They showed great affinity to phosphate with a maximum adsorption capacity of 102 mg/g. Additionally, the adsorption was selective, and the presence of other common anions and organic matters did not interfere with the phosphate adsorption efficacy. The kinetic analysis of phosphate adsorption suggested a pseudo-second-order adsorption behavior, and the adsorption isotherm studies indicated a Langmuir type adsorption. The phosphate removal capabilities of the nanoparticles were also tested in poultry rinsing water, tap water, and municipal wastewaters, all with high phosphate removal efficiency. The overall results from these experiments showed promising results for the phosphate removal efficacy of these nanoparticles.
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Desalination and water treatment
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Rice husks are an agricultural residue of great annual production and have a high cellulose content. In this study, we have prepared highly charged carboxyl cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from rice husks using the TEMPO-oxidation method and the extracted CNFs were evaluated as an adsorbent for the removal of lead( ii ) and lanthanum( iii ) (Pb( ii ) and La( iii )) ions from contaminated water. Three different forms of nanocellulose adsorbents were prepared: suspension, freeze-dried, and nanocomposite containing magnetic nanoparticles, where their adsorption performance was tested against the removal of the two chosen heavy metal ions. The maximum adsorption capacity of rice husk based CNFs was found to be the highest in the nanocellulose suspension, i.e. , 193.2 mg g −1 for Pb( ii ) and 100.7 mg g −1 for La( iii ). The separation of the used adsorbent in the suspension was further facilitated by the gelation of the CNFs and metal cations, where the resulting floc could be removed by gravity-driven filtration. The absorption mechanism of the investigated CNF system is mainly due to electrostatic interactions between negatively charged carboxylate groups and multivalent metal ions. It was found that 90% lanthanum content in the form ofmore »lanthanum oxychloride (determined by X-ray powder diffraction) could be obtained by incinerating the CNF/LaCl 3 gel. This study demonstrates a viable and sustainable solution to upcycle agricultural residues into remediation nanomaterials for the removal and recovery of toxic heavy metal ions from contaminated water.« less
  2. In this study, four geopolymer sorbents GP0, GP10, GP30 and GP50 were synthesized using volcanic ash (VA) and metakaolin (MK) blends as precursors with 0, 10, 30 and 50% MK content by mass, respectively. The materials were characterized by X-ray fuorescence (XRF), X-ray difraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyses, revealing successful geopolymerization of the precursors and increasing surface area with increasing MK content. The sorption performance of the VA, MK and VA-MK geopolymers was then evaluated for the removal of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous media. Sorption capacity was independent of composition, providing fexibility in sorbent synthesis. Sorption rate, on the other hand, was 3–8 times greater for the VA-MK geopolymers than the precursor materials. The equilibrium adsorption data were suitably explained by the Freundlich model, denoting multilayer adsorption onto a heterogeneous adsorption surface with higher Freundlich afnity constant (KF) for geopolymers than VA. The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic law with an average of 98% removal efciency in 30 min. MB uptake was pH-dependent and driven by electrostatic chemisorption interactions. These results motivate further studies on the use of locally sourced geopolymers for water purifcation applications.
  3. Nutrient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater is an important challenge for enhanced environmental sustainability. Herein we report the synthesis and properties of mesoporous MgO nanoparticles doped with copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) as an alternative low-solubility high-abundance magnesium (Mg) source for crystalline struvite precipitation from nutrient-laden wastewater. Undoped MgO was shown to have the fastest phosphate (PO 4 3− ) adsorption kinetics with a k 2 value of 0.9 g g −1 min −1 at room temperature. The corresponding rate constant decreased for Cu–MgO (0.175 g g −1 min −1 ), Zn–MgO (0.145 g g −1 min −1 ), and Fe–MgO (0.02 g g −1 min −1 ). Undoped MgO resulted in the highest PO 4 3− removal at 94%, while Cu–MgO, Fe–MgO, and Zn–MgO resulted in 90%, 66% and 66%, respectively, under equivalent reaction conditions. All dopants resulted in the production of struvite as the main product with the incorporation of the transition metals into the struvite crystal lattice. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the majority of the Cu, Fe, and Zn were primarily in the +2, +3, and +2 oxidation states, respectively. XAS also showed that the Cu atoms exist in elongatedmore »octahedral coordination, while Fe was shown to be in octahedral coordination. Zn was shown to be in a complex disordered environment with octahedral sites coexisting with the majority of the tetrahedral sites. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data suggest a two-fold struvite surface enrichment with dopant metals, with Cu exhibiting an interesting new local binding structure. The dopant concentrations utilized were consistent with those found in natural Mg minerals, suggesting that (a) utilizing natural mineral periclase as the Mg source for struvite production can result in struvite formation, albeit at the expense of the reaction kinetics and overall yields, while also (b) supplying essential micronutrients, such as Zn and Cu, necessary for balanced nutrient uptake.« less
  4. Copper oxide nanostructures are widely used for various applications due to their unique optical and electrical properties. In this work, we demonstrate an atmospheric laser-induced oxidation technique for the fabrication of highly electrochemically active copper oxide hierarchical micro/nano structures on copper surfaces to achieve highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing performance. The effect of laser processing power on the composition, crystallinity, microstructure, wettability, and color of the laser-induced oxide on copper (LIO-Cu) surface was systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), EDX-mapping, water contact angle measurements, and optical microscopy. Results of these investigations showed a remarkable increase in copper oxide composition by increasing the laser processing power. The pore size distribution and surface area of the pristine and LIO-Cu sample estimated by N 2 adsorption–desorption data showed a developed mesoporous LIO-Cu structure. The size of the generated nano-oxides, crystallinity, and electroactivity of the LIO-Cu were observed to be adjustable by the laser processing power. The electrocatalytic activity of LIO-Cu surfaces was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) within a potential window of −0.8 to +0.8 V and chronoamperometry in an applied optimized potential of +0.6 V, in 0.1more »M NaOH solution and phosphate buffer solution (PBS), respectively. LIO-Cu surfaces with optimized laser processing powers exhibited a sensitivity of 6950 μA mM −1 cm −2 within a wide linear range from 0.01 to 5 mM, with exceptional specificity and response time (<3 seconds). The sensors also showed excellent response stability over a course of 50 days that was originated from the binder-free robust electroactive film fabricated directly onto the copper surface. The demonstrated one-step LIO processing onto commercial metal films, can potentially be applied for tuneable and scalable roll-to-roll fabrication of a wide range of high surface area metal oxide micro/nano structures for non-enzymatic biosensing and electrochemical applications.« less
  5. Heavy metal ions are highly toxic and widely spread as environmental pollutants. This work reports the development of two novel chelating adsorbents, based on the chemical modifications of graphene oxide and zirconium phosphate by functionalization with melamine-based chelating ligands for the effective and selective extraction of Hg( ii ) and Pb( ii ) from contaminated water sources. The first adsorbent melamine, thiourea-partially reduced graphene oxide (MT-PRGO) combines the heavier donor atom sulfur with the amine and triazine nitrogen's functional groups attached to the partially reduced GO nanosheets to effectively capture Hg( ii ) ions from water. The MT-PRGO adsorbent shows high efficiency for the extraction of Hg( ii ) with a capacity of 651 mg g −1 and very fast kinetics resulting in a 100% removal of Hg( ii ) from 500 ppb and 50 ppm concentrations in 15 second and 30 min, respectively. The second adsorbent, melamine zirconium phosphate (M-ZrP), is designed to combine the amine and triazine nitrogen's functional groups of melamine with the hydroxyl active sites of zirconium phosphate to effectively capture Pb( ii ) ions from water. The M-ZrP adsorbent shows exceptionally high adsorption affinity for Pb( ii ) with a capacity of 681 mg gmore »−1 and 1000 mg g −1 using an adsorbent dose of 1 g L −1 and 2 g L −1 , respectively. The high adsorption capacity is also coupled with fast kinetics where the equilibrium time required for the 100% removal of Pb( ii ) from 1 ppm, 100 ppm and 1000 ppm concentrations is 40 seconds, 5 min and 30 min, respectively using an adsorbent dose of 1 g L −1 . In a mixture of six heavy metal ions at a concentration of 10 ppm, the removal efficiency is 100% for Pb( ii ), 99% for Hg( ii ), Cd( ii ) and Zn( ii ), 94% for Cu( ii ), and 90% for Ni( ii ) while at a higher concentration of 250 ppm the removal efficiency for Pb( ii ) is 95% compared to 23% for Hg( ii ) and less than 10% for the other ions. Because of the fast adsorption kinetics, high removal capacity, excellent regeneration, stability and reusability, the MT-PRGO and M-ZrP are proposed as top performing remediation adsorbents for the solid phase extraction of Hg( ii ) and Pb( ii ), respectively from contaminated water.« less