skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: SQUEEZENET: ALEXNET-LEVEL ACCURACY WITH 50X FEWER PARAMETERS AND <0.5MB MODEL SIZE
Recent research on deep neural networks has focused primarily on improving accuracy. For a given accuracy level, it is typically possible to identify multiple DNN architectures that achieve that accuracy level. With equivalent accuracy, smaller DNN architectures offer at least three advantages: (1) Smaller DNNs require less communication across servers during distributed training. (2) Smaller DNNs require less bandwidth to export a new model from the cloud to an autonomous car. (3) Smaller DNNs are more feasible to deploy on FPGAs and other hardware with limited memory. To provide all of these advantages, we propose a small DNN architecture called SqueezeNet. SqueezeNet achieves AlexNet-level accuracy on ImageNet with 50x fewer parameters. Additionally, with model compression techniques we are able to compress SqueezeNet to less than 0.5MB (510x smaller than AlexNet).  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1648576
NSF-PAR ID:
10026154
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
arXiv.org
ISSN:
2331-8422
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Model compression is an important technique to facilitate efficient embedded and hardware implementations of deep neural networks (DNNs), a number of prior works are dedicated to model compression techniques. The target is to simultaneously reduce the model storage size and accelerate the computation, with minor effect on accuracy. Two important categories of DNN model compression techniques are weight pruning and weight quantization. The former leverages the redundancy in the number of weights, whereas the latter leverages the redundancy in bit representation of weights. These two sources of redundancy can be combined, thereby leading to a higher degree of DNN model compression. However, a systematic framework of joint weight pruning and quantization of DNNs is lacking, thereby limiting the available model compression ratio. Moreover, the computation reduction, energy efficiency improvement, and hardware performance overhead need to be accounted besides simply model size reduction, and the hardware performance overhead resulted from weight pruning method needs to be taken into consideration. To address these limitations, we present ADMM-NN, the first algorithm-hardware co-optimization framework of DNNs using Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM), a powerful technique to solve non-convex optimization problems with possibly combinatorial constraints. The first part of ADMM-NN is a systematic, joint framework of DNN weight pruning and quantization using ADMM. It can be understood as a smart regularization technique with regularization target dynamically updated in each ADMM iteration, thereby resulting in higher performance in model compression than the state-of-the-art. The second part is hardware-aware DNN optimizations to facilitate hardware-level implementations. We perform ADMM-based weight pruning and quantization considering (i) the computation reduction and energy efficiency improvement, and (ii) the hardware performance overhead due to irregular sparsity. The first requirement prioritizes the convolutional layer compression over fully-connected layers, while the latter requires a concept of the break-even pruning ratio, defined as the minimum pruning ratio of a specific layer that results in no hardware performance degradation. Without accuracy loss, ADMM-NN achieves 85× and 24× pruning on LeNet-5 and AlexNet models, respectively, --- significantly higher than the state-of-the-art. The improvements become more significant when focusing on computation reduction. Combining weight pruning and quantization, we achieve 1,910× and 231× reductions in overall model size on these two benchmarks, when focusing on data storage. Highly promising results are also observed on other representative DNNs such as VGGNet and ResNet-50. We release codes and models at https://github.com/yeshaokai/admm-nn. 
    more » « less
  2. Training deep neural networks (DNNs) takes significant time and resources. A practice for expedited deployment is to use pre-trained deep neural networks (PTNNs), often from model zoosÐcollections of PTNNs; yet, the reliability of model zoos remains unexamined. In the absence of an industry standard for the implementation and performance of PTNNs, engineers cannot confidently incorporate them into production systems. As a first step, discovering potential discrepancies between PTNNs across model zoos would reveal a threat to model zoo reliability. Prior works indicated existing variances in deep learning systems in terms of accuracy. However, broader measures of reliability for PTNNs from model zoos are unexplored. This work measures notable discrepancies between accuracy, latency, and architecture of 36 PTNNs across four model zoos. Among the top 10 discrepancies, we find differences of 1.23%ś2.62% in accuracy and 9%ś131% in latency. We also find mismatches in architecture for well-known DNN architectures (e.g., ResNet and AlexNet). Our findings call for future works on empirical validation, automated tools for measurement, and best practices for implementation. 
    more » « less
  3. Neural architecture search (NAS) is a promising technique to design efficient and high-performance deep neural networks (DNNs). As the performance requirements of ML applications grow continuously, the hardware accelerators start playing a central role in DNN design. This trend makes NAS even more complicated and time-consuming for most real applications. This paper proposes FLASH, a very fast NAS methodology that co-optimizes the DNN accuracy and performance on a real hardware platform. As the main theoretical contribution, we first propose the NN-Degree, an analytical metric to quantify the topological characteristics of DNNs with skip connections (e.g., DenseNets, ResNets, Wide-ResNets, and MobileNets). The newly proposed NN-Degree allows us to do training-free NAS within one second and build an accuracy predictor by training as few as 25 samples out of a vast search space with more than 63 billion configurations. Second, by performing inference on the target hardware, we fine-tune and validate our analytical models to estimate the latency, area, and energy consumption of various DNN architectures while executing standard ML datasets. Third, we construct a hierarchical algorithm based on simplicial homology global optimization (SHGO) to optimize the model-architecture co-design process, while considering the area, latency, and energy consumption of the target hardware. We demonstrate that, compared to the state-of-the-art NAS approaches, our proposed hierarchical SHGO-based algorithm enables more than four orders of magnitude speedup (specifically, the execution time of the proposed algorithm is about 0.1 seconds). Finally, our experimental evaluations show that FLASH is easily transferable to different hardware architectures, thus enabling us to do NAS on a Raspberry Pi-3B processor in less than 3 seconds. 
    more » « less
  4. In the past decade, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), e.g., Convolutional Neural Networks, achieved human-level performance in vision tasks such as object classification and detection. However, DNNs are known to be computationally expensive and thus hard to be deployed in real-time and edge applications. Many previous works have focused on DNN model compression to obtain smaller parameter sizes and consequently, less computational cost. Such methods, however, often introduce noticeable accuracy degradation. In this work, we optimize a state-of-the-art DNN-based video detection framework—Deep Feature Flow (DFF) from the cloud end using three proposed ideas. First, we propose Asynchronous DFF (ADFF) to asynchronously execute the neural networks. Second, we propose a Video-based Dynamic Scheduling (VDS) method that decides the detection frequency based on the magnitude of movement between video frames. Last, we propose Spatial Sparsity Inference, which only performs the inference on part of the video frame and thus reduces the computation cost. According to our experimental results, ADFF can reduce the bottleneck latency from 89 to 19 ms. VDS increases the detection accuracy by 0.6% mAP without increasing computation cost. And SSI further saves 0.2 ms with a 0.6% mAP degradation of detection accuracy. 
    more » « less
  5. Recent advancements in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have enabled widespread deployment in multiple security-sensitive domains. The need for resource-intensive training and the use of valuable domain-specific training data have made these models the top intellectual property (IP) for model owners. One of the major threats to DNN privacy is model extraction attacks where adversaries attempt to steal sensitive information in DNN models. In this work, we propose an advanced model extraction framework DeepSteal that steals DNN weights remotely for the first time with the aid of a memory side-channel attack. Our proposed DeepSteal comprises two key stages. Firstly, we develop a new weight bit information extraction method, called HammerLeak, through adopting the rowhammer-based fault technique as the information leakage vector. HammerLeak leverages several novel system-level techniques tailored for DNN applications to enable fast and efficient weight stealing. Secondly, we propose a novel substitute model training algorithm with Mean Clustering weight penalty, which leverages the partial leaked bit information effectively and generates a substitute prototype of the target victim model. We evaluate the proposed model extraction framework on three popular image datasets (e.g., CIFAR-10/100/GTSRB) and four DNN architectures (e.g., ResNet-18/34/Wide-ResNetNGG-11). The extracted substitute model has successfully achieved more than 90% test accuracy on deep residual networks for the CIFAR-10 dataset. Moreover, our extracted substitute model could also generate effective adversarial input samples to fool the victim model. Notably, it achieves similar performance (i.e., ~1-2% test accuracy under attack) as white-box adversarial input attack (e.g., PGD/Trades). 
    more » « less