skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, April 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, April 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Cross-Referenced Dictionaries and the Limits of Write Optimization
Dictionaries remain the most well studied class of data structures. A dictionary supports insertions, deletions, membership queries, and usually successor, predecessor, and extract-min. In a RAM, all such operations take O(log n) time on n elements. Dictionaries are often cross-referenced as follows. Consider a set of tuples {〈ai,bi,ci…〉}. A database might include more than one dictionary on such a set, for example, one indexed on the a ‘s, another on the b‘s, and so on. Once again, in a RAM, inserting into a set of L cross-referenced dictionaries takes O(L log n) time, as does deleting. The situation is more interesting in external memory. On a Disk Access Machine (DAM), B-trees achieve O(logB N) I/Os for insertions and deletions on a single dictionary and K-element range queries take optimal O(logB N + K/B) I/Os. These bounds are also achievable by a B-tree on cross-referenced dictionaries, with a slowdown of an L factor on insertion and deletions. In recent years, both the theory and practice of external- memory dictionaries has been revolutionized by write- optimization techniques. A dictionary is write optimized if it is close to a B-tree for query time while beating B-trees on insertions. The best (and optimal) dictionaries achieve a substantially improved insertion and deletion cost of amortized I/Os on a single dictionary while maintaining optimal O(log1+B∊ N + K/B)- I/O range queries. Although write optimization still helps for insertions into cross-referenced dictionaries, its value for deletions would seem to be greatly reduced. A deletion into a cross- referenced dictionary only specifies a key a. It seems to be necessary to look up the associated values b, c … in order to delete them from the other dictionaries. This takes Ω(logB N) I/Os, well above the per-dictionary write-optimization budget of So the total deletion cost is In short, for deletions, write optimization offers an advantage over B-trees in that L multiplies a lower order term, but when L = 2, write optimization seems to offer no asymptotic advantage over B-trees. That is, no known query- optimal solution for pairs of cross-referenced dictionaries seem to beat B-trees for deletions. In this paper, we show a lower bound establishing that a pair of cross-referenced dictionaries that are optimal for range queries and that supports deletions cannot match the write optimization bound available to insert-only dictionaries. This result thus establishes a limit to the applicability of write-optimization techniques on which many new databases and file systems are based. Read More: http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/1.9781611974782.99  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1637458
NSF-PAR ID:
10027801
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The skip list is an elegant dictionary data structure that is com- monly deployed in RAM. A skip list with N elements supports searches, inserts, and deletes in O(logN) operations with high probability (w.h.p.) and range queries returning K elements in O(log N + K) operations w.h.p. A seemingly natural way to generalize the skip list to external memory with block size B is to “promote” with probability 1/B, rather than 1/2. However, there are practical and theoretical obsta- cles to getting the skip list to retain its efficient performance, space bounds, and high-probability guarantees. We give an external-memory skip list that achieves write- optimized bounds. That is, for 0 < ε < 1, range queries take O(logBε N + K/B) I/Os w.h.p. and insertions and deletions take O((logBε N)/B1−ε) amortized I/Os w.h.p. Our write-optimized skip list inherits the virtue of simplicity from RAM skip lists. Moreover, it matches or beats the asymptotic bounds of prior write-optimized data structures such as Bε trees or LSM trees. These data structures are deployed in high-performance databases and file systems. 
    more » « less
  2. Dyck-reachability is a fundamental formulation for program analysis, which has been widely used to capture properly-matched-parenthesis program properties such as function calls/returns and field writes/reads. Bidirected Dyck-reachability is a relaxation of Dyck-reachability on bidirected graphs where each edge u → ( i v labeled by an open parenthesis “( i ” is accompanied with an inverse edge v → ) i u labeled by the corresponding close parenthesis “) i ”, and vice versa. In practice, many client analyses such as alias analysis adopt the bidirected Dyck-reachability formulation. Bidirected Dyck-reachability admits an optimal reachability algorithm. Specifically, given a graph with n nodes and m edges, the optimal bidirected Dyck-reachability algorithm computes all-pairs reachability information in O ( m ) time. This paper focuses on the dynamic version of bidirected Dyck-reachability. In particular, we consider the problem of maintaining all-pairs Dyck-reachability information in bidirected graphs under a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. Dynamic bidirected Dyck-reachability can formulate many program analysis problems in the presence of code changes. Unfortunately, solving dynamic graph reachability problems is challenging. For example, even for maintaining transitive closure, the fastest deterministic dynamic algorithm requires O ( n 2 ) update time to achieve O (1) query time. All-pairs Dyck-reachability is a generalization of transitive closure. Despite extensive research on incremental computation, there is no algorithmic development on dynamic graph algorithms for program analysis with worst-case guarantees. Our work fills the gap and proposes the first dynamic algorithm for Dyck reachability on bidirected graphs. Our dynamic algorithms can handle each graph update ( i.e. , edge insertion and deletion) in O ( n ·α( n )) time and support any all-pairs reachability query in O (1) time, where α( n ) is the inverse Ackermann function. We have implemented and evaluated our dynamic algorithm on an alias analysis and a context-sensitive data-dependence analysis for Java. We compare our dynamic algorithms against a straightforward approach based on the O ( m )-time optimal bidirected Dyck-reachability algorithm and a recent incremental Datalog solver. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves orders of magnitude speedup over both approaches. 
    more » « less
  3. Hash tables are a ubiquitous class of dictionary data structures. However, standard hash table implementations do not translate well into the external memory model, because they do not incorporate locality for insertions. Iacono and Pătraşu established an update/query tradeoff curve for external-hash tables: a hash table that performs insertions in O(λ/B) amortized IOs requires Ω(logλ N) expected IOs for queries, where N is the number of items that can be stored in the data structure, B is the size of a memory transfer, M is the size of memory, and λ is a tuning parameter. They provide a complicated hashing data structure, which we call the IP hash table, that meets this curve for λ that is Ω(loglogM +logM N). In this paper, we present a simpler external-memory hash table, the Bundle of Arrays Hash Table (BOA), that is optimal for a narrower range of λ. The simplicity of BOAs allows them to be readily modified to achieve the following results: A new external-memory data structure, the Bundle of Trees Hash Table (BOT), that matches the performance of the IP hash table, while retaining some of the simplicity of the BOAs. The Cache-Oblivious Bundle of Trees Hash Table (COBOT), the first cache-oblivious hash table. This data structure matches the optimality of BOTs and IP hash tables over the same range of λ. 
    more » « less
  4. The ranked (or top-k) document retrieval problem is defined as follows: preprocess a collection{T1,T2,… ,Td}ofdstrings (called documents) of total lengthninto a data structure, such that for any given query(P,k), wherePis a string (called pattern) of lengthp ≥ 1andk ∈ [1,d]is an integer, the identifiers of thosekdocuments that are most relevant toPcan be reported, ideally in the sorted order of their relevance. The seminal work by Hon et al. [FOCS 2009 and Journal of the ACM 2014] presented anO(n)-space (in words) data structure withO(p+klogk)query time. The query time was later improved toO(p+k)[SODA 2012] and further toO(p/logσn+k)[SIAM Journal on Computing 2017] by Navarro and Nekrich, whereσis the alphabet size. We revisit this problem in the external memory model and present three data structures. The first one takesO(n)-space and answer queries inO(p/B+ logBn + k/B+log*(n/B)) I/Os, whereBis the block size. The second one takesO(nlog*(n/B)) space and answer queries in optimalO(p/B+ logBn + k/B)I/Os. In both cases, the answers are reported in the unsorted order of relevance. To handle sorted top-kdocument retrieval, we present anO(nlog(d/B))space data structure with optimal query cost.

     
    more » « less
  5. We present efficient dynamic data structures for maintaining the union of unit discs and the lower envelope of pseudo-lines in the plane. More precisely, we present three main results in this paper: (i) We present a linear-size data structure to maintain the union of a set of unit discs under insertions. It can insert a disc and update the union in O (( k +1)log 2 n ) time, where n is the current number of unit discs and k is the combinatorial complexity of the structural change in the union due to the insertion of the new disc. It can also compute, within the same time bound, the area of the union after the insertion of each disc. (ii) We propose a linear-size data structure for maintaining the lower envelope of a set of x -monotone pseudo-lines. It can handle insertion/deletion of a pseudo-line in O (log 2 n ) time; for a query point x 0 ∈ ℝ, it can report, in O (log n ) time, the point on the lower envelope with x -coordinate x 0 ; and for a query point q ∈ ℝ 2 , it can return all k pseudo-lines lying below q in time O (log n + k log 2 n ). (iii) We present a linear-size data structure for storing a set of circular arcs of unit radius (not necessarily on the boundary of the union of the corresponding discs), so that for a query unit disc D , all input arcs intersecting D can be reported in O ( n 1/2+ɛ + k ) time, where k is the output size and ɛ > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant. A unit-circle arc can be inserted or deleted in O (log 2 n ) time. 
    more » « less