skip to main content

Title: PLI: Augmenting Live Databases with Custom Clustered Indexes
RDBMSes only support one clustered index per database table that can speed up query processing. Database applications, that continually ingest large amounts of data, perceive slow query response times to long downtimes, as the clustered index ordering must be strictly maintained. In this paper, we show that application slowdown or downtime, however, can often be avoided if database systems expose the physical location of attributes that are completely or approximately clustered. Towards this, we propose PLI, a physical location index, constructed by determining the physical ordering of an attribute and creating approximately sorted buckets that map physical ordering with attribute values in a live database. To use a PLI incoming SQL queries are simply rewritten with physical ordering information for that particular database. Experiments show queries with the PLI index significantly outperform queries using native unclustered (secondary) indexes, while the index itself requires a much lower maintenance overheads when compared to native clustered indexes.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
SSDBM '17 Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 6
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Commercial cloud database services increase availability of data and provide reliable access to data. Routine database maintenance tasks such as clustering, however, increase the costs of hosting data on commercial cloud instances. Clustering causes an I/O burst; clustering in one-shot depletes I/O credit accumulated by an instance and increases the cost of hosting data. An unclustered database decreases query performance by scanning large amounts of data, gradually depleting I/O credits. In this paper, we introduce Physical Location Index Plus (PLI+), an indexing method for databases hosted on commercial cloud. PLI+ relies on internal knowledge of data layout, building a physical location index, which maps a range of physical co-locations with a range of attribute values to create approximately sorted buckets. As new data is inserted, writes are partitioned in memory based on incoming data distribution. The data is written to physical locations on disk in block-based partitions to favor large granularity I/O. Incoming SQL queries on indexed attribute values are rewritten in terms of the physical location ranges. As a result, PLI+ does not decrease query performance on an unclustered cloud database instance, DBAs may choose to cluster the instance when they have sufficiently large I/O credit available for clusteringmore »thus delaying the need for clustering. We evaluate query performance over PLI+ by comparing it with clustered, unclustered (secondary) indexes, and log-structured merge trees on real datasets. Experiments show that PLI+ significantly delays clustering, and yet does not degrade query performance—thus achieving higher level of sortedness than unclustered indexes and log-structured merge trees. We also evaluate the quality of clustering by introducing a measure of interval sortedness, and the size of index.« less
  2. Database systems use static analysis to determine upfront which data is needed for answering a query and use indexes and other physical design techniques to speed-up access to that data. However, for important classes of queries, e.g., HAVING and top-k queries, it is impossible to determine up-front what data is relevant. To overcome this limitation, we develop provenance-based data skipping (PBDS), a novel approach that generates provenance sketches to concisely encode what data is relevant for a query. Once a provenance sketch has been captured it is used to speed up subsequent queries. PBDS can exploit physical design artifacts such as indexes and zone maps.
  3. We study the question of when we can provide logarithmic-time direct access to the 𝑘-th answer to a Conjunctive Query (CQ) with a specified ordering over the answers, following a preprocessing step that constructs a data structure in time quasilinear in the size of the database. Specifically, we embark on the challenge of identifying the tractable answer orderings that allow for ranked direct access with such complexity guarantees. We begin with lexicographic orderings and give a decidable characterization (under conventional complexity assumptions) of the class of tractable lexicographic orderings for every CQ without self-joins. We then continue to the more general orderings by the sum of attribute weights and show for it that ranked direct access is tractable only in trivial cases. Hence, to better understand the computational challenge at hand, we consider the more modest task of providing access to only a single answer (i.e., finding the answer at a given position) — a task that we refer to as the selection problem. We indeed achieve a quasilinear-time algorithm for a subset of the class of full CQs without self-joins, by adopting a solution of Frederickson and Johnson to the classic problem of selection over sorted matrices. We furthermore »prove that none of the other queries in this class admit such an algorithm.« less
  4. Abstract Motivation

    In the past few years, researchers have proposed numerous indexing schemes for searching large datasets of raw sequencing experiments. Most of these proposed indexes are approximate (i.e. with one-sided errors) in order to save space. Recently, researchers have published exact indexes—Mantis, VariMerge and Bifrost—that can serve as colored de Bruijn graph representations in addition to serving as k-mer indexes. This new type of index is promising because it has the potential to support more complex analyses than simple searches. However, in order to be useful as indexes for large and growing repositories of raw sequencing data, they must scale to thousands of experiments and support efficient insertion of new data.


    In this paper, we show how to build a scalable and updatable exact raw sequence-search index. Specifically, we extend Mantis using the Bentley–Saxe transformation to support efficient updates, called Dynamic Mantis. We demonstrate Dynamic Mantis’s scalability by constructing an index of ≈40K samples from SRA by adding samples one at a time to an initial index of 10K samples. Compared to VariMerge and Bifrost, Dynamic Mantis is more efficient in terms of index-construction time and memory, query time and memory and index size. In our benchmarks, VariMerge and Bifrostmore »scaled to only 5K and 80 samples, respectively, while Dynamic Mantis scaled to more than 39K samples. Queries were over 24× faster in Mantis than in Bifrost (VariMerge does not immediately support general search queries we require). Dynamic Mantis indexes were about 2.5× smaller than Bifrost’s indexes and about half as big as VariMerge’s indexes.

    Availability and implementation

    Dynamic Mantis implementation is available at

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    « less
  5. Abstract The big graph database provides strong modeling capabilities and efficient querying for complex applications. Subgraph isomorphism which finds exact matches of a query graph in the database efficiently, is a challenging problem. Current subgraph isomorphism approaches mostly are based on the pruning strategy proposed by Ullmann. These techniques have two significant drawbacks- first, they are unable to efficiently handle complex queries, and second, their implementations need the large indexes that require large memory resources. In this paper, we describe a new subgraph isomorphism approach, the HyGraph algorithm, that is efficient both in querying and with memory requirements for index creation. We compare the HyGraph algorithm with two popular existing approaches, GraphQL and Cypher using complexity measures and experimentally using three big graph data sets—(1) a country-level population database, (2) a simulated bank database, and (3) a publicly available World Cup big graph database. It is shown that the HyGraph solution performs significantly better (or equally) than competing algorithms for the query operations on these big databases, making it an excellent candidate for subgraph isomorphism queries in real scenarios.