skip to main content

Title: Pd-PEPPSI: a general Pd-NHC precatalyst for Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling of esters and amides (transamidation) under the same reaction conditions
Amides are of fundamental interest in many fields of chemistry involving organic synthesis, chemical biology and biochemistry. Here, we report the first catalytic Buchwald-Hartwig coupling of both common esters and amides by highly selective C(acyl)–X (X = O, N) cleavage to rapidly access aryl amide functionality via crosscoupling strategy. Reactions are promoted by versatile, easily prepared, well-defined Pd-PEPPSI type precatalysts, proceed in good to excellent yields and with excellent chemoselectivity for the acyl bond cleavage. The method is user friendly because it employs commercially-available, moisture- and air-stable precatalysts. Notably, for the first time we demonstrate selective C(acyl)–N and C(acyl)–O cleavage/Buchwald-Hartwig amination under the same reaction conditions, which allows for streamlining amide synthesis by avoiding restriction to a particular acyl metal precursor. Of broad interest, this study opens the door to using a family of well-defined Pd(II)-NHC precatalysts bearing pyridine ͞throw-away ligands for the selective C-acyl–amination of bench-stable carboxylic acid derivatives.
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Chemical communications
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The Pd–NHC-catalyzed acyl-type Buchwald–Hartwig cross-coupling of amides by N–C(O) cleavage (transamidation) provides a valuable alternative to the classical methods for amide synthesis. Herein, we report a combined experimental and computational study of the Buchwald–Hartwig cross-coupling of amides using well-defined, air- and moisture-stable [Pd(NHC)(allyl)Cl] precatalysts. Most crucially, we present a comprehensive evaluation of a series of distinct Pd( ii )–NHC precatalysts featuring different NHC scaffolds and throw-away ligands for the synthesis of functionalized amides that are not compatible with stoichiometric transition-metal-free transamidation methods. Furthermore, we present evaluation of the catalytic cycle by DFT methods for a series of different Pd( iimore »)–NHC precatalysts. The viability of accessing NHC-supported acyl-palladium( ii ) amido complexes will have implications for the design and development of cross-coupling methods involving stable amide electrophiles.« less
  2. We report a general, highly selective method for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of N-acylphthalimides via N–C(O) acyl cleavage catalyzed by Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts. Of broad synthetic interest, the method introduces N-acylphthalimides as new, bench-stable, highly reactive, twist-controlled, amide-based precursors to acyl-metal intermediates. The reaction delivers functionalized biaryl ketones by acylative Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with readily available boronic acids. Studies demonstrate that cheap, easily prepared, and broadly applicable Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts supported by a sterically demanding IPr (1,3-Bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) ancillary ligand provide high yields in this reaction. Preliminary selectivity studies and the effect of Pd–N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) complexes with allyl-type throw-away ligands are described. We expect thatmore »N-acylphthalimides will find significant use as amide-based acyl coupling reagents and cross-coupling precursors to acyl-metal intermediates.« less
  3. The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been widely recognized as one of the most important methods for the construction of C–C bonds. However, in contrast to traditional aryl halide or pseudohalide electrophiles, coupling reactions with unactivated C–N and C–O electrophiles have proven significantly more challenging. Here we report the first general palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of both common amides and aryl esters through the selective cleavage of the C–N and C–O bonds under exceedingly mild conditions. Notably, for the first time we demonstrate selective C(acyl)– N and C(acyl)–O cleavage/cross-coupling under the same reaction conditions. The reaction uses a commercially available, bench-stable and operationally-convenientmore »(n3-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) precatalyst. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reactivity of generic amides and aryl esters can be correlated with barriers to isomerization around the C(acyl)–X (X = N, O) bond, thus providing a blueprint for the development of a broad range of novel coupling reactions of ester and amide electrophiles by the selective activation of C–O and C–N bonds.« less
  4. The formation of amide bonds represents one of the most fundamental processes in organic synthesis. Transition-metal-catalyzed activation of acyclic twisted amides has emerged as an increasingly powerful platform in synthesis. Herein, we report the transamidation of N-activated twisted amides by selective N–C(O) cleavage mediated by air- and moisture-stable half-sandwich Ni(II)–NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbenes) complexes. We demonstrate that the readily available cyclopentadienyl complex, [CpNi(IPr)Cl] (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), promotes highly selective transamidation of the N–C(O) bond in twisted N-Boc amides with non-nucleophilic anilines. The reaction provides access to secondary anilides via the non-conventional amide bond-forming pathway. Furthermore, the amidation of activatedmore »phenolic and unactivated methyl esters mediated by [CpNi(IPr)Cl] is reported. This study sets the stage for the broad utilization of well-defined, air- and moisture-stable Ni(II)–NHC complexes in catalytic amide bond-forming protocols by unconventional C(acyl)–N and C(acyl)–O bond cleavage reactions.« less
  5. In this Special Issue on N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Their Complexes in Catalysis, we report the first example of Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides catalyzed by well-defined, air- and moisture-stable nickel/NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes. The selective amide bond N–C(O) activation is achieved by half-sandwich, cyclopentadienyl [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes. The following order of reactivity of NHC ligands has been found: IPr > IMes > IPaul ≈ IPr*. Both the neutral and the cationic complexes are efficient catalysts for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the reactions are complete in < 1 h at 80 °C. Complete selectivity for themore »cleavage of exocyclic N-acyl bond has been observed under the experimental conditions. Given the utility of nickel catalysis in activating unreactive bonds, we believe that well-defined and bench-stable [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes will find broad application in amide bond and related cross-couplings of bench-stable acyl-electrophiles.« less