skip to main content


Title: Isolable iodosylarene and iodoxyarene adducts of Co and their O-atom transfer and C–H activation reactivity
We report an unusual series of discrete iodosyl- and iodoxyarene adducts of Co. The formation of these adducts was confirmed by a suite of techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction. The reactivity of these adducts with O-atom acceptors and an H-atom donor has been investigated with particular focus on elucidating mechanistic details. Detailed kinetic analysis allows for discrimination between proposed oxo and adduct mediated mechanisms. In particular, these reactions have been interrogated by competition experiments with isotopically labelled mixtures which shows that all of the studied adducts display a large KIE. These studies suggest different mechanisms may be relevant depending on subtle substituent changes in the adduct complexes. Reactivity data are consistent with the involvement of a transient oxo complex in one case, while the two other systems appear to react with substrates directly as iodosyl- or iodoxyarene adducts. These results support that reactivity typically ascribed to metal-oxo complexes, such as O-atom transfer and C–H activation, can also be mediated by discrete transition metal iodosyl- or iodoxyarene adducts that are frequent intermediates in the generation of oxo complexes. The influence of additional Lewis acids such as Sc 3+ on the reactivity of these systems has also been investigated.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1654144
NSF-PAR ID:
10057263
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
ISSN:
2041-6520
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and manganese lipoxygenase use Mn III –hydroxo centres to mediate proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions with substrate. As manganese is earth-abundant and inexpensive, manganese catalysts are of interest for synthetic applications. Recent years have seen exciting reports of enantioselective C–H bond oxidation by Mn catalysts supported by aminopyridyl ligands. Such catalysts offer economic and environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional reagents and catalysts. Mechanistic studies of synthetic catalysts highlight the role of Mn–oxo motifs in attacking substrate C–H bonds, presumably by a concerted proton–electron transfer (CPET) step. (CPET is a sub-class of PCET, where the proton and electron are transferred in the same step.) Knowledge of geometric and electronic influences for CPET reactions of Mn–hydroxo and Mn–oxo adducts enhances our understanding of biological and synthetic manganese centers and informs the design of new catalysts. In this Feature article, we describe kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo complexes that provide insight into the basis for the CPET reactivity of these species. Systematic perturbations of the ligand environment around Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo motifs permit elucidation of structure–activity relationships. For Mn III –hydroxo centers, electron-deficient ligands enhance oxidative reactivity. However, ligand perturbations have competing consequences, as changes in the Mn III/II potential, which represents the electron-transfer component for CPET, is offset by compensating changes in the p K a of the Mn II –aqua product, which represents the proton-transfer component for CPET. For Mn IV –oxo systems, a multi-state reactivity model inspired the development of significantly more reactive complexes. Weakened equatorial donation to the Mn IV –oxo unit results in large rate enhancements for C–H bond oxidation and oxygen-atom transfer reactions. These results demonstrate that the local coordination environment can be rationally changed to enhance reactivity of Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo adducts. 
    more » « less
  2. Despite the myriad Cu-catalyzed nitrene transfer methodologies to form new C–N bonds (e.g.,amination, aziridination), the critical reaction intermediates have largely eluded direct characterization due to their inherent reactivity. Herein, we report the synthesis of dipyrrin-supported Cu nitrenoid adducts, investigate their spectroscopic features, and probe their nitrene transfer chemistry through detailed mechanistic analyses. Treatment of the dipyrrin CuI complexes with substituted organoazides affords terminally ligated organoazide adducts with minimal activation of the azide unit as evidenced by vibrational spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu nitrenoid, with an electronic structure most consistent with a triplet nitrene adduct of CuI, is accessed following geometric rearrangement of the azide adduct from k1-N terminal ligation to k1-N internal ligation with subsequent expulsion of N2. For perfluorinated arylazides, stoichiometric and catalytic C–H amination and aziridination was observed. Mechanistic analysis employing substrate competition reveals an enthalpically-controlled, electrophilic nitrene transfer for primary and secondary C–H bonds. Kinetic analyses for catalytic amination using tetrahydrofuran as a model substrate reveal pseudo-first order kineticsunderrelevantaminationconditionswithafirst-orderdependenceonbothCuandorganoazide. Activation parameters determined from Eyring analysis(DH‡=9.2(2)kcalmol−1,DS‡=−42(2)calmol−1 K−1, DG‡ 298K =21.7(2) kcal mol−1) and parallel kinetic isotope effect measurements (1.10(2)) are consistent with rate-limiting Cu nitrenoid formation, followed by a proposed stepwise hydrogen-atom abstraction and rapid radical recombination to furnish the resulting C–N bond. The proposed mechanism and experimental analysis are further corroborated by density functional theory calculations. Multiconfigurational calculations provide insight into the electronic structure of the catalytically relevant Cu nitrene intermediates. The findings presented herein will assist in the development of future methodology for Cu-mediated C–N bond forming catalysis. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Reactivities of non‐heme iron(IV)‐oxo complexes are mostly controlled by the ligands. Complexes with tetradentate ligands such as [(TPA)FeO]2+(TPA=tris(2‐pyridylmethyl)amine) belong to the most reactive ones. Here, we show a fine‐tuning of the reactivity of [(TPA)FeO]2+by an additional ligand X (X=CH3CN, CF3SO3, ArI, and ArIO; ArI=2‐(tBuSO2)C6H4I) attached in solution and reveal a thus far unknown role of the ArIO oxidant. The HAT reactivity of [(TPA)FeO(X)]+/2+decreases in the order of X: ArIO > MeCN > ArI ≈ TfO. Hence, ArIO is not just a mere oxidant of the iron(II) complex, but it can also increase the reactivity of the iron(IV)‐oxo complex as a labile ligand. The detected HAT reactivities of the [(TPA)FeO(X)]+/2+complexes correlate with the Fe=O and FeO−H stretching vibrations of the reactants and the respective products as determined by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy. Hence, the most reactive [(TPA)FeO(ArIO)]2+adduct in the series has the weakest Fe=O bond and forms the strongest FeO−H bond in the HAT reaction.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Reactivities of non‐heme iron(IV)‐oxo complexes are mostly controlled by the ligands. Complexes with tetradentate ligands such as [(TPA)FeO]2+(TPA=tris(2‐pyridylmethyl)amine) belong to the most reactive ones. Here, we show a fine‐tuning of the reactivity of [(TPA)FeO]2+by an additional ligand X (X=CH3CN, CF3SO3, ArI, and ArIO; ArI=2‐(tBuSO2)C6H4I) attached in solution and reveal a thus far unknown role of the ArIO oxidant. The HAT reactivity of [(TPA)FeO(X)]+/2+decreases in the order of X: ArIO > MeCN > ArI ≈ TfO. Hence, ArIO is not just a mere oxidant of the iron(II) complex, but it can also increase the reactivity of the iron(IV)‐oxo complex as a labile ligand. The detected HAT reactivities of the [(TPA)FeO(X)]+/2+complexes correlate with the Fe=O and FeO−H stretching vibrations of the reactants and the respective products as determined by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy. Hence, the most reactive [(TPA)FeO(ArIO)]2+adduct in the series has the weakest Fe=O bond and forms the strongest FeO−H bond in the HAT reaction.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) can produce a wide range of gas‐phase uranyl (UO22+) complexes for tandem mass spectrometry studies of intrinsic structure and reactivity. We describe here the formation and collision‐induced dissociation (CID) of [UO2(NO3)3]and [UO2(NO3)2(O2)]. Multiple‐stage CID experiments reveal that the complexes dissociate in reactions that involve elimination of O2, NO2, or NO3, and subsequent reactions of interesting uranyl‐oxo product ions with (neutral) H2O and/or O2were investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reproduce experimental results and show that dissociation of nitrate ligands, with ejection of neutral NO2, is favored for both [UO2(NO3)3]and [UO2(NO3)2(O2)]. DFT calculations also suggest that H2O adducts to products such as [UO2(O)(NO3)]spontaneously rearrange to create dihydroxides and that addition of O2is favored over addition of H2O to formally U(V) species.

     
    more » « less