skip to main content


Title: Statistical analysis of C–H activation by oxo complexes supports diverse thermodynamic control over reactivity
Transition metal oxo species are key intermediates for the activation of strong C–H bonds. As such, there has been interest in understanding which structural or electronic parameters of metal oxo complexes determine their reactivity. Factors such as ground state thermodynamics, spin state, steric environment, oxygen radical character, and asynchronicity have all been cited as key contributors, yet there is no consensus on when each of these parameters is significant or the relative magnitude of their effects. Herein, we present a thorough statistical analysis of parameters that have been proposed to influence transition metal oxo mediated C–H activation. We used density functional theory (DFT) to compute parameters for transition metal oxo complexes and analyzed their ability to explain and predict an extensive data set of experimentally determined reaction barriers. We found that, in general, only thermodynamic parameters play a statistically significant role. Notably, however, there are independent and significant contributions from the oxidation potential and basicity of the oxo complexes which suggest a more complicated thermodynamic picture than what has been shown previously.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1654144
NSF-PAR ID:
10227152
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Volume:
12
Issue:
11
ISSN:
2041-6520
Page Range / eLocation ID:
4173 to 4183
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We report an unusual series of discrete iodosyl- and iodoxyarene adducts of Co. The formation of these adducts was confirmed by a suite of techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction. The reactivity of these adducts with O-atom acceptors and an H-atom donor has been investigated with particular focus on elucidating mechanistic details. Detailed kinetic analysis allows for discrimination between proposed oxo and adduct mediated mechanisms. In particular, these reactions have been interrogated by competition experiments with isotopically labelled mixtures which shows that all of the studied adducts display a large KIE. These studies suggest different mechanisms may be relevant depending on subtle substituent changes in the adduct complexes. Reactivity data are consistent with the involvement of a transient oxo complex in one case, while the two other systems appear to react with substrates directly as iodosyl- or iodoxyarene adducts. These results support that reactivity typically ascribed to metal-oxo complexes, such as O-atom transfer and C–H activation, can also be mediated by discrete transition metal iodosyl- or iodoxyarene adducts that are frequent intermediates in the generation of oxo complexes. The influence of additional Lewis acids such as Sc 3+ on the reactivity of these systems has also been investigated. 
    more » « less
  2. High-valent metal oxo complexes are prototypical intermediates for the activation and hydroxylation of alkyl C–H bonds. Substituting the oxo ligand with other functional groups offers the opportunity for additional C–H functionalization beyond C–O bond formation. However, few species aside from metal oxo complexes have been reported to both activate and functionalize alkyl C–H bonds. We herein report the first example of an isolated copper( iii ) cyanide complex (LCu III CN) and its C–H cyanation reactivity. We found that the redox potential ( E ox ) of substrates, instead of C–H bond dissociation energy, is a key determinant of the rate of PCET, suggesting an oxidative asynchronous CPET or ETPT mechanism. Among substrates with the same BDEs, those with low redox potentials transfer H atoms up to a million-fold faster. Capitalizing on this mechanistic insight, we found that LCu III CN is highly selective for cyanation of amines, which is predisposed to oxidative asynchronous or stepwise transfer of H + /e − . Our study demonstrates that the asynchronous effect of PCET is an appealing tool for controlling the selectivity of C–H functionalization. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    High‐valent Fe(IV)=O intermediates of metalloenzymes have inspired numerous efforts to generate synthetic analogs to mimic and understand their substrate oxidation reactivities. However, high‐valent M(IV) complexes of late transition metals are rare. We have recently reported a novel Co(IV)−dinitrate complex (1‐NO3) that activates sp3C−H bonds up to 87 kcal/mol. In this work, we have shown that the nitrate ligands in1‐NO3can be replaced by azide, a more basic coordinating base, resulting in the formation of a more potent Co(IV)−diazide species (1‐N3) that reacts with substrates (hydrocarbons and phenols) at faster rate constants and activates stronger C−H bonds than the parent complex1‐NO3. We have characterized1‐N3employing a combination of spectroscopic and computational approaches. Our results clearly show that the coordination of azide leads to the modulation of the Co(IV) electronic structure and the Co(IV/III) redox potential. Together with the higher basicity of azide, these thermodynamic parameters contribute to the higher driving forces of1‐N3than1‐NO3for C−H bond activation. Our discoveries are thus insightful for designing more reactive bio‐inspired high‐valent late transition metal complexes for activating inert aliphatic hydrocarbons.

     
    more » « less
  4. Pyridine and quinoline undergo selective C–H activation in the 2-position with Rh and Ir complexes of a boryl/bis(phosphine) PBP pincer ligand, resulting in a 2-pyridyl bridging the transition metal and the boron center. Examination of this reactivity with Rh and Ir complexes carrying different non-pincer ligands on the transition metal led to the realization of the possible isomerism derived from the 2-pyridyl fragment connecting either via B–N/C–M bonds or via B–C/N–M bonds. This M–C/M–N isomerism was systematically examined for four structural types. Each of these types has a defined set of ligands on Rh/Ir besides 2-pyridyl and PBP. A pair of M–C/M–N isomers for each type was computationally examined for Rh and for Ir, totaling 16 compounds. Several of these compounds were isolated or observed in solution by experimental methods, in addition to a few 2-quinolyl variants. The DFT predictions concerning the thermodynamic preference within each M–C/M–N isomeric match the experimental findings very well. In two cases where DFT predicts <2 kcal mol −1 difference in free energy, both isomers were experimentally observed in solution. Analysis of the structural data, of the relevant Wiberg bond indices, and of the ETS-NOCV partitioning of the interaction of the 2-pyridyl fragment with the rest of the molecule points to the strength of the M–C(pyridyl) bond as the dominant parameter determining the relative M–C/M–N isomer favorability. This M–C bond is always stronger for the analogous Ir vs. Rh compounds, but the nature of the ligand trans to it has a significant influence, as well. DFT calculations were used to evaluate the mechanism of isomerization for one of the molecule types. 
    more » « less
  5. Metal–organic coordination networks at surfaces, formed by on-surface redox assembly, are of interest for designing specific and selective chemical function at surfaces for heterogeneous catalysts and other applications. The chemical reactivity of single-site transition metals in on-surface coordination networks, which is essential to these applications, has not previously been fully characterized. Here, we demonstrate with a surface-supported, single-site V system that not only are these sites active toward dioxygen activation, but the products of that reaction show much higher selectivity than traditional vanadium nanoparticles, leading to only one V-oxo product. We have studied the chemical reactivity of one-dimensional metal–organic vanadium – 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DPTZ) chains with O 2 . The electron-rich chains self-assemble through an on-surface redox process on the Au(100) surface and are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, and density functional theory. Reaction of V-DPTZ chains with O 2 causes an increase in V oxidation state from V II to V IV , resulting in a single strongly bonded (DPTZ 2− )V IV O product and spillover of O to the Au surface. DFT calculations confirm these products and also suggest new candidate intermediate states, providing mechanistic insight into this on-surface reaction. In contrast, the oxidation of ligand-free V is less complete and results in multiple oxygen-bound products. This demonstrates the high chemical selectivity of single-site metal centers in metal–ligand complexes at surfaces compared to metal nanoislands. 
    more » « less