Millimeter wave (mmW) communications is viewed as the key enabler of 5G cellular networks due to vast spectrum availability that could boost peak rate and capacity. Due to increased propagation loss in mmW band, transceivers with massive antenna array are required to meet a link budget, but their power consumption and cost become limiting factors for commercial systems. Radio designs based on hybrid digital and analog array architectures and the usage of radio frequency (RF) signal processing via phase shifters have emerged as potential solutions to improve radio energy efficiency and deliver performances close to the conventional digital antenna arrays. In this paper, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art mmW massive antenna array designs and comparison among three array architectures, namely digital array, partially-connected hybrid array (sub-array), and fully-connected hybrid array. The comparison of performance, power, and area for these three architectures is performed for three representative 5G downlink use cases, which cover a range of pre-beamforming signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) and multiplexing regimes. This is the first study to comprehensively model and quantitatively analyze all design aspects and criteria including: 1) optimal linear precoder, 2) impact of quantization error in digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and phase shifters, 3) RF signal distributionmore »
A Comparison of Hybrid Beamforming and Digital Beamforming with Low-Resolution ADCs for Multiple Users and Imperfect CSI
For 5G it will be important to leverage the available millimeter wave spectrum. To achieve an approximately omni- directional coverage with a similar effective antenna aperture compared to state-of-the-art cellular systems, an antenna array is required at both the mobile and basestation. Due to the large bandwidth and inefficient amplifiers available in CMOS for mmWave, the analog front-end of the receiver with a large number of antennas becomes especially power hungry. Two main solutions exist to reduce the power consumption: hybrid beam forming and digital beam forming with low resolution Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs). In this work we compare the spectral and energy efficiency of both systems under practical system constraints. We consider the effects of channel estimation, transmitter impairments and multiple simultaneous users for a wideband multipath model. Our power consumption model considers components reported in literature at 60 GHz. In contrast to many other works we also consider the correlation of the quantization error, and generalize the modeling of it to non- uniform quantizers and different quantizers at each antenna. The result shows that as the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) gets larger the ADC resolution achieving the optimal energy efficiency gets also larger. The energy efficiency more »
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- IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
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Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications and cell densification are the key techniques for the future evolution of cellular systems beyond 5G. Although the current mmWave radio designs are focused on hybrid digital and analog receiver array architectures, the fully digital architecture is an appealing option due to its flexibility and support for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). In order to achieve reasonable power consumption and hardware cost, the specifications of analog circuits are expected to be compromised, including the resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the linearity of radio-frequency (RF) front end. Although the state-of-the-art studies focus on the ADC, the nonlinearity can also lead to severe system performance degradation when strong input signals introduce inter-modulation distortion (IMD). The impact of RF nonlinearity becomes more severe with densely deployed mmWave cells since signal sources closer to the receiver array are more likely to occur. In this work, we design and analyze the digital IMD compensation algorithm, and study the relaxation of the required linearity in the RF-chain. We propose novel algorithms that jointly process digitized samples to recover amplifier saturation, and relies on beam space operation which reduces the computational complexity as compared to per-antenna IMD compensation.
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