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Title: Rapid 1024-pixel Electrochemical Imaging at 10,000 Frames per Second using Monolithic CMOS Sensor and Multifunctional Data Acquisition System
Fast electrochemical imaging enables the dynamic study of electroactive molecule diffusion in neurotransmitter release from single cells and dopamine mapping in brain slices. In this paper, we discuss the design of an electrochemical imaging sensor using a monolithic CMOS sensor array and a multifunctional data acquisition system. Using post-CMOS fabrication, the CMOS sensor integrates 1024 on-chip electrodes on the surface and contains 1024 low-noise amplifiers to simultaneous process parallel electrochemical recordings. Each electrochemical electrode and amplifier are optimized to operate at 10.38 kHz sampling rate. To support the operation of the high-throughput CMOS device, a multifunctional data acquisition device is developed to provide the required speed and accuracy. The high analog data rate of 10.63 MHz from all 1024 amplifiers is redundantly sampled by the custom-designed data acquisition system which can process up to 73.6 MHz with up to ~400 Mbytes/s data rate to a computer using USB 3.0 interface. To contain the liquid above the electrochemical sensors and prevent electronic and wire damage, we packaged the monolithic sensor using a 3D-printed well. Using the presented device, 32 pixel × 32 pixel electrochemical imaging of dopamine diffusion is successfully demonstrated at over 10,000 frames per second, the fastest reported to more » date. « less
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IEEE Sensors Journal
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National Science Foundation
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